Unrecognised, Unnecessary and
Gautam Appa and Girish Patel
T his chapter defines three arguably new categories of involuntary displacement induced by economic development activity. It attempts to show through case studies 1 from Gujarat, India, that displacement due to development can be indirect (and hence hidden and unrecognised), unnecessary and manifestly unjust, although legal. Unrecognised displacement, as Scudder describes in an earlier chapter, is a poorly understood category which needs to be properly defined and documented. Most unnecessary displacement and some unjust displacement can be tackled with simple policy changes, which are outlined. The need for a national policy on development-induced displacement is highlighted.
It is now known that about ten million people annually enter the cycle of forced displacement and relocation through dam construction and urban/transportation projects alone. Cernea earlier pointed out that this is a partial figure because it does not include populations____________________