a development phase may follow that judiciously combines 'development from above' with 'development from below'. Instead of flooding resettlement schemes with government-desired innovations, planners should lay more emphasis on facilitating local initiatives and enhancing local production systems ( Scudder 1980). Ambitiously planned resettlement schemes that try to radically transform the relocatees' economy and ways of life are likely to fail with, as a consequence, the impoverishment of resettlers.
According to one of the World Bank's resettlement guidelines, 'all involuntary resettlement should be conceived and executed as a development program' ( Cernea 1993a:24). But how can land-based resettlement programmes also become development programmes? Giving relocatees an adequate productive land base is part of the answer. Giving them the opportunity of sharing in the projeces benefits by, for example resettling them downstream in newly irrigated areas ( Cernea 1990a) is another part. According to Shihata, '... balanced development can only be achieved if the basic human rights are secured for the people adversely affected by development, as well as those who receive direct benefits. This requires creating an environment that allows them to preserve their cultural values while improving their living standards' (1993:53). Creating this kind of environment means giving the resettled community clear and full title to an adequate, well-defined territory which will serve as the basis of its production system and as new grounds for its cultural and social values.