Impoverishment Risks' Analysis
PARTICIPATORY RESETTLEMENT PLANNING
D evelopment-induced displacement and the resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced people (DPs) are two aspects of the process of development in a developing country like India. This is because of the very real needs for irrigation, electricity and infrastructure that are necessary for development.
The World Bank's resettlement policy, while taking into consideration the human-rights perspective, aims to resettle and rehabilitate the displaced and the project-affected persons (PAPs) with the provision of an appropriate and adequate 'resource base' such as land, and with a view to 'improve or at least restore' their incomes and livelihoods. For such a policy to be effective, I argue that it needs to be complemented by a methodological 'model' which could analyse, anticipate and articulate the risks of displacement and become a management and participatory tool for resettlement planning and the attainment of the Bank's policy objectives of restoring, and over a period improving, incomes and livelihoods, better housing with civic amenities and access to health care and education.
Cernea's 'impoverishment risks' analysis model (see Chapter Two) provides one tool for planners, other development practitioners and, of equal importance, relocated people themsleves, to