ITALIAN EDITIONS: Italian editions of Machiavelli's works are numerous. The most useful edition of the major writings is to be found in the one-volume Tutte le opere ( Sansoni, Florence, 1972), edited by Mario Martelk For a complete edition in eleven volumes, consult the collected works magnificently edited by Sergio Bertelli, Niccolò Machiavelli: Opera omnia ( Edizioni Valdonega, Verona, 1968-80), the tenth volume of which comprises a bibliography and the last volume a detailed index.
ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS: For the most recent collection of new translations from Machiavdli's various political, historical, and literary works, see Peter Bondanella and Mark Musa, eds. and trans., The Portable Machiavelli (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1979); The Prince and Other Political Writings, ed. Bruce Penman ( Dent, London, 1981), is a similar anthology which omits any literary works. For additional translations not contained in either of these anthologies, consult Allan H. Gilbert, ed. and trans., Machiavelli: The Chief Works and Others, 3 vols. ( Duke University Press, Durham. N.C., 1965). A number of excellent editions of The Prince are available in separate editions: James B. Atkinson, ed. and trans., The Prince ( Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, Ind., 1976); George Bull , ed. and trans., The Prince (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1961, rev. ed. 1975); and Thomas G. Bergin, ed. and trans., The Prince ( AHM Publishing Corporation, Northbrook, Ill., 1947).
MACHIAVELLI'S BIOGRAPHY AND INTELLECTMAL BACKGROUND: The classic study of Machiavelli's life is Roberto Ridolfi's The Life of Niccolò Machiavelli ( Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1963), although Pasquale Villari's The Life and Times of Niccolò Machiavelli, 2 vols. ( Greenwood Press, London, rpt. of 1892 ed.) is still worth examining. Three briefer surveys of Machiavelli's life and works are J. R. Hale's Machiavelli and Renausance Italy (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1972); Quentin Skinner's Machiavelli ( Oxford University Press, Q&rd, 1981); and Silvia Russo-Fiore's Niecolò Machiavelli ( Twayne, Boston, 1982). For specific studies of Machiavell's career in the Florentine Chancery and the political milieu within winch he worked there, see the following: Nicola Rubmstein,