THIS BOOK is affectionately dedicated to Edgar Eugene Robinson, Professor of American History, emeritus, and formerly Director of the Institute of American History, Stanford University, whose suggestion, aid, and guidance have been for many years the source of my greatest inspiration. Many of his revealing and influential works on American political history are cited in the Bibliography and relied upon in the text.
Professor Thomas A. Bailey of Stanford was a constructive reader of the doctoral dissertation which, eleven years ago, formed the early outline for much that appears in the present work.
The close friendship and keen political wisdom of Thomas Barclay, Professor of Political Science, emeritus, Stanford University, have had special value for the present writer -- as they have for countless other persons.
Florence Thorne, former secretary to Samuel Gompers, gave access to the seldom-used American Federation of Labor archives in the old headquarters furnace room, Washington, D. C. Clifford Lord, then director, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, and members of his staff, made available the Hillquit, Simons, and Wisconsin Federation of Labor papers. Theodore Muellerand Frederick Olson facilitated exploration in the manuscript holdings of the Milwaukee County Historical Society. Norman Thomas generously permitted access to his papers at the New York Public Library, and Duke University librarians granted the opportunity to read in the Socialist Party's official papers. Lucile Kane and others at the Minnesota Historical Society made available the Teigan and Hall papers. Officials at the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, and particularly Katherine Brand, facilitated convenient access to the Coolidge papers and other collections.