ive episodes (42 per cent), followed by those with melancholic (25 per cent), schizomanic-depressive (21 per cent), and schizophrenic episodes (17 per cent). Significantly more acoustic hallucinations, mood-congruent delusions and first-rank symptoms were recorded amongst patients with suicidal episodes.
Marital status and occupational status at the time of the episode seem to be important to a certain degree: being married and being a housewife seems to increase the risk of suicidal behaviour. Further investigations on the importance of such factors as sex, marital status, occupational status, and type of episode are currently being carried out.
There was no difference between suicidal and non-suicidal episodes regarding age of the patient at the time of the episode, the presence or absence of residual symptoms, and whether it was the first episode or a later episode in the course of the illness. In nearly every second episode an attempted suicide was recorded, mostly with so-called 'soft' methods such as intoxication with pills.
American Psychiatric Association ( 1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn, Washington: APA.
----- ( 1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn (revised), Washington: APA.
Angst, J. ( 1980) "'Verlauf unipolar depressiver, bipolar manischdepressiver und schizo-affektiver Erkrankungen und Psychosen'", Fortschritte Neurologie Psychiatrie, 48, 3-30.
----- ( 1987). "'Epidemiologie der affektiven Psychosen'", in K. P. Kisker, H. Lauter , J. E. Meyer, C. Môller and C. Strömgren (eds.), Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, 3rd edn, vol. 5, Springer.
----- and Stassen, H. H. ( 1987). 'Verlaufsaspekte affektiver Psychosen: Suizide, Rückfallrisiko im Alter', in G. Huber (ed.), Fortschritte in der Psychosenforschung, Schattauer.
Cohen, S. M., Allen, M. G., Pollin, W. and Hrubec, Z. ( 1972). 'Relationship of Schizo-Affective Psychosis to Manic Depressive Psychosis and Schizophrenia', Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 539-46.
Dingman, C. and McGlashan, T. ( 1986). 'Discriminating Characteristics of Suicides', Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 74, 91-7.
Marneros, A., Deister, A. and Rohde, A. ( 1986). 'The Cologne Study on Schizoaffective Disorders and Schizophrenia Suspects', in A. Marneros and M. T. Tsuang (eds.), Schizoaffective Psychoses, Springer.
----- Jünemann, H. and Fimmers, R. ( 1988a). 'Long-term Course of Schizoaffective Disorders: Definitions, Methods, Frequency of Episodes and Cycles', European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 237, 264-75.
----- ( 1988b). 'Long-term Course of Schizoaffective Disorders: Length of Cycles, Episodes and Intervals', European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 237, 276-82.