My sincerest thanks go to Amy Richlin and Sandra Joshel for many helpful comments on an
early draft of this chapter. My colleague Rebecca Hague has kindly given me the benefit of
her knowledge of ancient weddings; I am especially grateful to her for bringing to my
attention the remarks of the scholiast on Theocritus 18. The late John Winkler kindly allowed
me to see his article on Daphnis and Chloe before publication (in Winkler 1990).
Texts used in this essay are as follows. For the Greek text of Longus, I have reference to
the edition of Reeve ( 1986); for Achilles Vilborg Tatius ( 1955); for Heliodorus, Bekker
( 1855). Translations used in quotations include those of Thornley (1657, edited by
for Longus, Gaselee ( 1917) for Achilles Tatius, and
Smith ( 1901) for Heliodorus. Page
numbers have been given only for Smith, who (unlike the others) does not follow the
divisions of the Greek edition. In many cases the translation has been altered to represent the
Greek more closely. For a concise survey of ancient romance novels, see Winkler 1988; for
all the novels in translation, see now Reardon 1989. I regret that Bartsch 1989 appeared too
late for me to make use of it here as I would have wished.
Jessica Steele, Tomorrow--Come Soon ( Toronto: Harlequin Books, 1984). The passage from Longus is my own rather loose, excerpted translation (from 1.13) into language
closer to that of the Harlequin, for the obvious purpose of emphasizing the comparison.
On the exaggeration by critics generally of the originality of eighteenth-century novels
as compared to the ancient works, see
Winkler 1988: 1563.
In what follows I will discuss an aspect of Daphnis and Chloe that is scarcely recognized by critics, with the exception of Winkler ( 1990). Winkler summarizes the subject of his
discussion as follows (103): "My central topic . . . is the inherent violence of the cultural
system discovered by Daphnis and Chloe . . . and the unequal impact of that violence." In
this major respect Winkler anticipates my argument: he demonstrates that to some extent
gender is a theme in Daphnis and Chloe. He also describes the novel as "a tale specifically of
rape repeatedly escaped and yet continually and disturbingly re-surfacing." Winkler's analysis of episodes in Longus is several times in accordance with mine, but more detailed. I am
especially indebted to him for his treatments of the Lykainion episode and of the actual
wedding scene; but compare also his discussions of the attack by Dorcon, the Syrinx fable,
and the ravishing of the garden. See also Zeitlin 1990.
I am indebted to Amy Richlin for this observation.
For the "charming" effects of girlish fear, see above on Dorcon's attempted rape of
Chloe, and Richlin, Chapter 8 in this volume.