This book has been a long time in preparation and in the course of it I have received help from many quarters. I am grateful first of all to my contributors, and in particular to those who, as well as diligently writing their own contributions to the book, also acted as informal advisers on the project -- notably Thomas Elsaesser, Charles Musser, Ashish Rajadhyaksha, and A. L. Rees. I also received specialist advice from Stephen Bottomore, Pam Cook, Rosalind Delmar, Hugh Denman, Joel Finler, June Givanni, David Parkinson, Jasia Reichert, and, most valuably of all, from Markku Salmi. I had administrative help in the early stages from my niece Rebecca Nowell-Smith, and editorial assistance -- all too briefly-from Sam Cook. For the last two years my Assistant Editor has been Kate Beetham, to whom my debt is indescribable. Lael Lowinstein helped with the bibliography. Picture research was conducted by Liz Heasman, whose knowledge and judgement are unrivalled in this tricky field. The tiresome work of tracing picture permissions devolved on Vicki Reeve and Diana Morris. For this normally thankless task they deserve particular thanks. And thanks, too, to my editors at the Oxford University Press, Andrew Lockett and Frances Whistler, especially for their patience.
Translations are by Robert Gordon ( Italy: Spectacle and Melodrama, The Scandinavian Style, Italy from Fascism to Neo-Realism, Italy: Auteurs and After); Gerald Brooke ( The Soviet Union and the Russian Émigrés); Timothy Seaton ( Cinema in the Soviet Republics); and Nina Taylor ( Yiddish Cinema in Europe, East Central Europe before the Second World War, Changing States in East Central Europe).