the Canadian Rockies. Unit B film-makers at the National Film Board -- Kroitor, Koenig, and Terence MacartneyFilgate -- were seeking a more direct cinema, one less stilted and more real. They started the television series The Candid Eye of half-hour shorts, including The Days before Christmas ( 1958), Emergency Ward ( William Greaves, 1958), and The Back-Breaking Leaf ( 1959) -- the latter about migrant tobacco workers. French-speaking film-makers Michel Brault and Gilles Groulx collaborated on Les Raquetteurs ( 1958), which looks at daily life and everyday language in Quebec. The increased spontaneity of the camera work, which captured activities as they unfolded, often unexpectedly, pointed toward new kinds of documentary which a new generation of lightweight, sync-sound equipment was about to make possible.
Aitken, Ian ( 1990), Film and Reform: John Grierson and the Documentary Film Movement.
Barnouw, Eric ( 1974), Documentary.
Barsam, Richard ( 1992), Non-Fiction Film.
Alexander, William ( 1981), Film on the Left: American Documentary Film from 1931 to 1942.
Buchsbaum, Jonathan ( 1988), Cinema Engagf: Film in the Popular Front.
Graham, Cooper C. ( 1986), Leni Riefenstahl and Olympia.
Grierson, John ( 1966), Grierson on Documentary.
Jacobs, Lewis (ed.) ( 1979), The People's Films: A Political History of U.S. Government Motion Pictures.
Sklar, Robert and Musser, Charles (eds.) ( 1990), Resisting Images: Essays on Cinema and History.
Snyder, Robert L. ( 1968), Pare Lorentz and the Documentary Film.
Sussex, Elizabeth ( 1975), The Rise and Fall of British Documentary.
The cinema started life as a capitalist industry, and that is what, at most times and in most countries, it has tended to remain. But as a capitalist industry, run for profit on a large scale, it has been the subject of much moral, political, and economic concern on the part of government and society at large. It has been censored (particularly in times of moral panic), regulated (particularly in times of war), and assisted (particularly in times of crisis), by governmental and para-governmental agencies. In most countries, moreover, even in that paradigm of private enterprise the United States of America, it has contained large sectors that were operated not by profit-seeking capital but by artists and activists, or that were sponsored or managed by governments, either for the benefit of the art or for the control of its content. In general the entertainment sector was the most capitalist, with 'art' cinema being state-subsidized, and documentary and educational films the object of more active government intervention. In the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, however, state ownership and control became the norm, not only for documentary and minor genres but for the industry as a whole.
From a conventional western perspective, these various interventions into, and departures from, the working of a mainly capitalist industry can be seen as exceptions to a presumed norm, provoked by exceptional circumstances and for the most part marginal to the main development of the cinema. Such a perspective is broadly valid for the cinemas of pluralist, capitalist countries, in periods of relative normality. But for non-normal times -- for nations at war, for societies in the throes of revolution -- and for parts of the world where the western capitalist norm does not have the status of normality, its validity is not so selfevident. In particular the idea of a self-contained and mainly self-regulating industry, which fringes upon the world of politics and into which governments are forced to intervene, needs to be put into question. For many situations, a perspective has to be adopted for which politics is not incidental but central, and the tension between social and political systems, cultures and world-views, is seen as a major determinant of the form cinema could take.
In its early years-up to the end of the First World War-- the cinema conformed broadly to the 'normal' perspective. It entered the world of reportage as early as the Spanish-American War of 1898; it found its way into the world of moral concern with films such as George Loane Tucker 's Traffic in Souls ( 1913); its monopoly practices began to be scrutinized by the courts in the course of the battles waged by Thomas Edison against his competitors throughout the first decade of the century; and, during the World War, governments intervened to regulate news reporting from the front and to encourage patriotic film-making at home. But whereas, by rights, the Armistice of 1918 should have signalled the end of a state of exception and a return to a previously experienced normality, in fact it ushered in a condition of crisis which has affected the cinema ever since. Crisis and conflict became the norm, even if their effects were not always and everywhere apparent.
The first sign of the new state of affairs came with the establishment in Hungary in April 1919 of the short-lived