whole bloody war', through its empathy for his tears and drinking, and through its discussion of the nature of the relationship between himself (played by Jack Hawkins) and his first lieutenant ( Donald Sinden), which, it suggests, may range from military duty to eroticized love. Anthony Asquith's The Browning Version ( 1951), based on the Terence Rattigan play, indicts any version of manhood which sets store by stoicism, silence, and repression of feeling. A classics master ( Michael Redgrave) is shown to have become a wizened, embittered husk through years of mute tolerance of his wife's unfaithfulness, and because of a failure to show his own emotional life, either to her, or to his pupils. In Victim ( 1961) Dirk Bogarde plays a lawyer who is forced publicly to defend his identity as a homosexual and expose a blackmailing ring after his lover hangs himself, even though this may end his career and shatter his marriage. The pressures to hide this part of his manhood have become intolerable.
Traditional values of masculinity had been disturbed by the war, and these uncertainties, combined with relaxation in BBFC rulings, permitted the emergence of a realist cinema which tested out new versions of the male, paving the way for the British 'New Wave', and the cinema of the so-called Angry Young Men. In many respects this gave new life to the British cinema, but not in all; and for a British cinema of angry women, we have to turn back to the early films of Gracie Fields, the 1940s Gainsborough costume cycle, and some home-front films, or forward to the feminist movement of the 1970s and beyond.
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Atwell, David ( 1980), Cathedrals of the Movies.
Barr, Charles ( 1977), Ealing Studios (repr. 1993).
Curran, James, and Porter, Vincent (eds.) ( 1983), British Cinema History.
Dickinson, Margaret, and Street, Sarah ( 1985), Cinema and State.
Lant, Antonia ( 1991), Blackout: Reinventing Women for Wartime British Cinema.
Perry, George ( 1985), The Great British Picture Show.
Richards, Jeffrey ( 1984), The Age of the Dream Palace: Cinema and Society in Britain, 1930-1939.
Ryall, Tom ( 1986), Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema.
Stead, Peter ( 1989), Film and the Working Class: The Feature Film in British and American Society.
Taylor, Philip M. (ed.) ( 1988), Britain and the Cinema in the Second World War.
Audio-visual machinery played a crucial role in National Socialist designs for living, in radical attempts to monitor human activity and dominate the physical world. Adolf Hitler and his Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, were keenly aware of film's ability to mobilize emotions and immobilize minds, to create powerful illusions and captive audiences. Calculating metteurs-en-scène, they employed state-of-the-art technology to implement a society of spectacles, a profusion of celebrations, light shows, and mass extravaganzas. Hitler's regime involved a sustained cinematic event, as Hans Jürgen Syberberg would later put it, 'a film from Germany'. If the Nazis were movie mad, then the Third Reich was movie made, a fantasy construction that in equal parts functioned as a dream machine and a death factory.
German cinema of the Third Reich, even half a century after Hitler's demise, still prompts extreme reactions and hyperbolic formulations. Given the atrocities of National Socialism, the movies, newsreels, and documentaries made under its aegis represent for many commentators film history's darkest hour. The corpus of 1,100 narrative features produced between 1933 and 1945, German critic Wilhelm Roth once observed, catalyses visions of a cinematic hell, where one's torments alternate between hideous propaganda, formal bombast, and unbearable kitsch. To this day Nazi cinema in many minds resembles Mabuse's 1,000 eyes or 1984's panoptic state apparatus.
Immediately after assuming power, the National Socialists purged a once internationally recognized industry of its artistic vanguard and the greater portion of its professional craft and technical expertise. More than 1,500 film-makers -- many of whom were Jews as well as progressives and independents-would flee Germany, replaced in many instances by politically subservient hacks and second-rate opportunists. In the minds of its most severe detractors, Nazi cinema represents the antithesis of Weimar's revered 'haunted screen' (Lotte Eisner). An infamous entity, its most memorable achievement is the systematic abuse of film's formative powers in the name of mass manipulation, state terror, and world-wide destruction.
Goebbels set out to 'reform German film from the ground up'. The new film must renounce the sins of the Weimar Systemzeit, its art-for-art's-sake dalliance, intel-