Michael Powell directed another comedy in Australia, Age of Consent ( 1969), but Mangiamele did not get the opportunity to make another feature. Yet what he had begun, others took up. The Pudding Thieves ( 1967), Time in Summer ( 1968), and, especially, Two Thousand Weeks ( 1969) drew, as Clay had, on European models of art cinema and, in so doing, established a new understanding of what film in Australia might become-not British, not American -- and laid the foundation for the important films of the next decades.
Bertrand, Ina (ed.) ( 1989), Cinema in Australia: A Documentary History.
Cunningham, Stuart ( 1991), Featuring Australia: The Cinema of Charles Chauvel.
Long, Chris ( 1994), Australia's First Films.
Pike, Andrew, and Cooper, Ross ( 1980), Australian Film, 1900-1977. A Guide to Feature Film Production.
Shirley, Graham, and Adams, Brian ( 1989), Australian Cinema: The First Eighty Years.
Tulloch, John ( 1981), Legends on the Screen: The Narrative Film in Australia 1919-1929.
Moving pictures first reached Latin America with representatives of the Lumiére brothers, who sent out teams around the world on planned itineraries designed to capitalize on the fascination which the new invention created everywhere; two teams went to Latin America, one to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, and Buenos Aires, the other to Mexico and Havana. The Lumiére Cinématographe served as both projector and camera and men like Gabriel Veyre, who arrived in Mexico in the middle of 1896 and Cuba the following January, were also briefed to bring back scenes from the countries they visited. Hard on their heels came the Biograph men from New York and other adventurers, from both the United States and Europe. The North Americans tended not to penetrate very far south, where European immigration was at its height, and in Argentina and Brazil the pioneers were French and Belgian, Austrian and Italian. The earliest moving images of Latin America were thus mostly taken by European immigrants or residents, possessing both the minimum expertise needed to set up a film business and the contacts in the Old World to ensure a supply of films for exhibition. The varying dates of these first films-1896 in Mexico, 1897 in Cuba, Argentina, and Venezuela, 1898 in Brazil and Uruguay, 1902 in Chile, 1905 in Colombia, 1906 in Bolivia, 1911 in Peru-bespeak the steady penetration of film across the continent, for they usually follow the dates of first exhibition fairly quickly.
The scenes that were shot follow the expected trends: they picture official ceremonies and presidents, with their families and entourages; military parades and naval manoeuvres; traditional festivities and tourist scenes, including views of city architecture, picturesque landscapes, and pre-Columbian ruins. The Brazilian film historian Salles Gomes ( 1980) reckoned that the work of the first Latin American cineastas was roughly divided between depicting 'the splendid cradle of nature' and 'the ritual of power'. A good proportion consisted in the kind of exotic scenes popularized by nineteenth-century photographers; in the words of Susan Sontag, 'the view of reality as an exotic prize . . . tracked down and captured by the diligent hunter-with-a-camera'. Adopting the point of view of the outsider, who gazes on other people's reality with curiosity, detachment, and professionalism, the photographer behaves as if the captured view transcended class interests, 'as if its perspective is universal' ( Sontag 1977). In the condition of dependency which characterizes an underdeveloped continent like Latin America, this not only served to gratify the audience -- which in Latin America was initially the upper and middle classes-with flattering images, but also to secure finance-by advancing the cause of publicity. And if in Mexico newspapers sponsored free film shows which they financed by including colour slides carrying advertisements, in Havana in 1906 an entertainment park commissioned the Cuban film pioneer Enrique Díaz Quesada to make a film for its publicity campaign in the United States. Early attempts at narrative often followed in the same ideological mould by taking up safe patriotic subjects, like the Argentinian film El fusilamiento de Dorrego ('The shooting of Dorrego') of 1908.
There is no necessary connection, however, between these early endeavours and subsequent developments. Cuba, Venezuela, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia saw no significant film production for several decades, only a few sporadic attempts. In the smallest countries, like Uruguay, Paraguay, Ecuador, and those of Central America, there is still no significant production of featurelength fiction today, though documentary and video production are now in evidence. A continuous history of production with significant contributions in successive periods can only be found in the larger countries -- Mexico,