the field of animated special effects took on new significance. Many special effects had been animated since the silent film days. Willis O'Brien animated models of prehistoric animals for The Lost World ( 1925), King Kong ( 1933), and Mighty Joe Young ( 1947); Warren Newcombe painted mattes (for hundreds of films, including The Wizard of Oz, 1939) that allowed actors to appear in imaginary surroundings; Linwood Dunn optically printed actors together with models, paintings, or other film strips ( Citizen Kane, 1941; The Birds, 1963). In many films these effects are compiled together in scene after scene-in the Ray Harryhausen mythological Jason and the Argonauts ( 1963), a live-actor Neptune rises up out of the sea in slow motion to push apart two cliffs (one a matte painting, one a model) so that a model ship can sail through, narrowly missed by falling boulders (a real-time live-action film strip). The success of Kubrick's 2001 ( 1968) depended heavily on the brilliance of its special effects including intricate models and slit-scan motion-control camera work, and a staff of more than twenty-five technicians.
George Lucas's Industrial Light and Magic company integrated all forms of animation, from models and make-up to computer effects, to provide comprehensive service not just for the Star Wars films, but also for an increasing number of science-fiction, horror, fantasy, and action films dependent on dazzling visual magic to sustain them. The introduction of computer scan and morphing modification allowed frames of film to be altered (including combining two or more image elements from different sources) on computer-video, then transferred back in the enhanced form to a final film negative. This process can be used for individual special effects in pure live-action features, like Terminator 2, and as a continuous liveaction/animation meld (as in the 1988 Disney feature Who Framed Roger Rabbit, for which the animated characters were shaded to correspond with their equivalent liveaction movements while being printed together with the actors), or as an integral part of the creation of all-animated features, like Aladdin (for which, for example, the magic carpet was designed as a flat object, and the computer 'animated' all the curves and ripples in its pattern as it flew). Today, through the wonders of Industrial Light and Magic's computer animation, Tom Hanks's Forrest Gump can walk and talk with John Kennedy and John Lennon; soon Tom Hanks will be able to star in a new film of Chekhov's Three Sisters with Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Marilyn Monroe, Tyrone Power, and Laurence Olivier . . .
Bendazzi, Giannalberto ( 1994), Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation.
Edera, Bruno ( 1977), Full Length Animated Feature Films.
Halas, John ( 1987), Masters of Animation.
Noake, Roger ( 1988), Animation: A Guide to Animated Film Techniques.
Pilling, Jayne, (ed.) ( 1992), Women and Animation: A Compendium.
Russet, Robert and Starr, Cecile (ed.) ( 1981), Experimental Animation: Origins of a New Art.
Early in the sound era, film-makers established a norm for musical scoring which, by 1960, had changed very little. That norm dictated the use of musical cues kept outside the narrative universe (the diegesis) and specifically tailored to the action of a particular film. It also dictated that the musical styles derive from those of 'classical' music, which might be simply defined as music, generally intended for the concert hall, that stands in opposition to the more popular forms of the art, whether songs, dance tunes, or jazz.
Film composer Miklós Rózsa ( 1983) has described 'the accepted Hollywood style' as being in a 'Broadway-cumRachmaninoff idiom'. However, numerous different classical styles and idioms, some of them quite modern, had begun to manifest themselves as early as the silent era. By 1960 most 'classical' music sounds, from the Romantic period onward, were showing up in some film score or another. Perhaps more significantly, other musical idioms, in particular jazz and pop, formerly used almost exclusively either as diegetic ('source') music or in musicals, played a larger and larger role in background scoring. New ways of envisaging film/music interactions also began to emerge in commercial cinema, due to (1) changes and evolutions in audience taste and profile, (2) greater commercial tie-ins between the cinema and other areas of marketing, such as sound recordings, and (3) a greater aesthetic influence on the part of non-Hollywood filmmaking, particularly from Europe.
In 'classical' idioms, a number of the styles and film/music interactions that prevailed up to 1960 continued to mani-