Deneuve, has really been a box-office draw in her own right.
The high quality of French cinema in the last three decades could not have been sustained without strong back-up from the other contributors to the film-making process: set designers Alexandre Trauner and Bernard tvein, cinematographers Henri Alekan, Raoul Coutard, Nestor Almendros, and Sacha Vierny, composers Georges Delerue and Philippe Sarde, script-writers Jean-Claude Carrière, Gérard Brach, and Jean-Pierre Rappeneau (also the director of two stylish films, La Vie de château, 1966, and Cyrano de Bergerac, 1987), and producers Anatole Dauman, Pierre Braunberger, Georges de Beauregard, Serge Silberman, Claude Berri (who also directed several wellcrafted films, including Jean de Florette and Manon des sources ( 1986), from the Pagnol novel, which, in their nostalgic depiction of life in Provence, struck a chord with audiences, and launched a vogue for nostalgia). This favourable creative environment, combined with the attractions of state aid and a liberal attitude to political exiles, prompted many major non-French directors to make films in France. They included Luis Bufiuel, Walerian Borowczyk, Andrzej Wajda, Roman Polanski, Chantal Akerman, Agnieszka Holland, and Raul Ruiz, among others.
France's lively film culture is reflected in the existence of many film magazines. At the 'serious' end of the market, Positif has remained true to its old principles, though it is now less militant, and attracts the same sort of readership as its bigeer-selling rival Cahiers du cinirna. The more popular Première and Studio Magazine have large circulations. The cinema is given wide coverage in other printed media and on radio and television. Paris offers a choice of films unparalleled anywhere in the world. Several commercial cinemas pursue a programming policy of one-off showings not very different from that of subsidized film theatres, of which there are three: the Cinémathèque Franqaise, the Pompidou Centre ( Salle Garance), and the Vidéothèque de Paris. As a result, over 350 different films are shown in any given week in Paris. France hosts over a dozen film festivals each year in addition to Cannes. The favourable cultural environment partly explains why attendances and the number of screens have decreased very slowly compared with the rest of Europe.
Since the momentum of interest in film will no doubt continue to be self-sustaining for some time, and since state subsidies and incentives have not been significantly eroded as a result of the change of government in 1993, the French cinema can expect to remain in relatively good health for the foreseeable future.
Armes, Roy ( 1985), French Cinema.
Browne, Nick (ed.) ( 1990), Cahiers du Cinema: 1969-1972: The Politics of Representation.
Forbes, Jill ( 1992), The Cinema in France after the New Wave.
Graham, Peter (ed.) ( 1968), The New Wave: Critical Landmarks.
Hayward, Susan ( 1993), French National Cinema.
---- and Vincendeau, Ginette (eds.) ( 1990), French Film: Texts and Contexts.
Hillier, Jim (ed.) ( 1985), Cahiers dii Cinéma: The 1960s.
Jeancolas, Jean-Pierre (1979), Le Cinema des Française Le Veme Réptiblique ( 1958-1978).
The year 1960 was a remarkable one for Italian cinema. For the first (and only) time since 1946 Italian films not only overtook Hollywood films in popularity in the domestic market but captured over 50 per cent of total boxoffice. Three films released that year- Luchino Visconti's Rocco and his Brothers ( Rocco e i suoi fratelli), Federico Fellini's La dolce vito ('The good life'), and Michelangelo Antonioni's L'avventura ('The adventure') -- also went on to be major successes abroad.
The trimnphs of 1960 had been prefigured in 1959, which was also a year of commercial revival and in which two Italian films -- Roberto Rossellini's Il Generale Della Rovere and Mario Monicelli's La grande guerra ('The Great War') -- shared the Golden Lion at the Venice festival. But there is no doubt that 1960 was the watershed, ushering in a period of generalized renewal of modes of expression in the cinema. While Rocco (and another great box-office success of that year, Luigi Comencini's Tutti a casa ('Everybody go home')), might be seen as throwbacks to earlier modes, L'avvemtira and La dolce vita definitively turned their backs on the past and prefigured the surge of dovelopments to come.
Although L'avventura was perhaps the more aestlictically innovative of the two, La dolce, vita, was historically the more important. It provided proof. if proof were needed. of the demise of neo-realism, and it was a crucial turning-