1983, and The Blue Exile ( 1993), which relied on mystical expression, proved highly influential. Omar Kavur studied film production at IDHEC in Paris, and developed an amazing visual style, which he used to narrate stories centred around (self-)investigation: Yusuf and Kenan ( 1979), Oh Beautiful Istanbul ( 1981), A Broken Love Story ( 1982), The Merciless Road ( 1985), The Hotel Anayurt ( 1986), and The Secret Face ( 1991).
The 1980s and 1990s saw several new tendencies emerge in the mainstream of Turkish cinema production. Throughout the 1980s, so-called 'women's films' were extremely popular. These mostly told the stories of marginal women (prostitutes) who do not actually live within accepted Turkish society. Towards the end of the decade the Turkish cinema began to produce films which have benefited from the country's traditional narrative forms, and visual and artistic culture. Innovative and promising examples of this trend are: Halit Refi≥'s two most recent films, The Lady ( 1988) and Two Strangers ( 1990); several television mini-serials by Yücel Çakmakli and Salih Diriklik; ismail Gíne§'s Drawing ( 1990); Reha Erdem's ' A . . . ay!' ( 1990); Osman Sinav's The Last Day of the Sultan ( 1990); ömer Kavur 's The Secret Face ( 1991); Erdin Kiral's The Blue Exile ( 1993); and Yavuz Turgul's Shadow Play ( 1993).
A nation has to develop its own cinematography, its own film language, by relying on its visual culture, narrative traditions, and capacity for artistic experiments. Turkish film-makers have proved that they are beginning to discover a distinctive way of story-telling which will enable them to create a truly national cinema.
Armes, Roy ( 1987), Third World Film Making and the West.
Kaplan, Yusuf ( 1994), Türk sinemasi: pathos ve retorik ('The Turkish cinema: pathos and rhetoric').
özön, Nijat ( 1968), Tiirk sinemasi Kronolojisi: 1895-1966 ('The chronology of Turkish cinema: 1893-1966').
Scognamillo, Giovanni ( 1987-8), Tiirk sinemasi tarihi ('The history of Turkish cinema'), 2 vols.
Woodhead, Christine (ed.) ( 1989), Turkish Cinema: An introduction.
At the turn of the century, social and economic conditions throughout the Arab world were totally different from those in Europe and the United States, where the development of cinema had been closely linked to the growth of industrialization. The cinema was exploited in Europe and the United States as a commercial entertainment for a largely working- and lower middle-class audience now with money to pay for its entertainment needs, and, even when exported, it remained a secular, commercial entertainment quite unrelated to traditional forms of Arab leisure activity. In the Arab world the end of the nineteenth century was an era of colonization and European domination, so that many of the very early film showings were arranged by and for foreign residents.
Thus, in Egypt and Algeria, screenings of the Lumières' Cinématographe were organized as early as 1896 in the back rooms of cafés, but only in those cities with large numbers of foreign residents: Cairo and Alexandria, Algiers and Oran. Where screenings were arranged for a wider audience, those responsible tended to be local entrepreneurs with links to the west. In Tunisia, for example, Albert Samama, also known as Chikly, had already imported other western novelties, such as the bicycle, still photography, and the phonograph, when he introduced the cinematograph to Tunis audiences in 1897. Chikly, indeed, is a true pioneer, since he subsequently directed the first Tunisian short film, Zohra, in 1922 and a first feature, Ain al-Gheza( The Girl from Carthage), in 1924. Both starred his daughter Haydée Chikly, who also appeared in Rex Ingram's 1924 feature The Arab, which starred Ramon Navarro and Alice Terry.
Elsewhere in the Arab world public screenings of films were delayed for social or religious reasons: the first public shows did not occur until 1908 in Aleppo, arranged by some Turkish businessmen, and 1909 in Baghdad, when films of unknown origin were shown at the al-Shafa house. Occasionally local scenes were shot by the Lumiére operators, partly to add to the attraction of their programmes for local audiences, but principally to be offered as exotic novelties to western audiences. In time, screenings for an élite audience -- foreign residents and members of a westernized bourgeoisie -- came to be supplemented by film shows for a popular audience. A two-tier system of distribution -- new imported films in luxurious but expensive air-conditioned cinemas and cheap trashy productions shown in poor conditions to the popular audience -- remains common in many parts of the Arab world.
Usually in the Arab world the first film productions, like the first screenings, were the work of foreigners. In Egypt the Frenchman De Lagarne commissioned a foreign cameraman to shoot scenes in Alexandria in 1912. More authentic national productions usually followed within