producing films over two decades, notably Surfacing on the Thames ( 1970). In the east, groups of film-makers centred around the Funnel and the Canadian Filmmakers Distribution Centre in Toronto have been working within a more personal context as in Phil Hoffman's passing through/torn formations ( 1990) about personal origin, or Midi Onodera's Ten Cents a Dance ( 1985) about sexual orientation. The latter theme is prevalent across all levels of film-making in Canada from mainstream features as in Léa Pool's Anne Trister ( 1986) through NFB documentaries like Forbidden Love ( 1992) by Lynne Fernie and Aerlyn Weissman, to the underground work of John Greyson, whose recent feature Zero Patience traces the origin of the AIDS virus in cult musical form.
In Canada today the Parti québécois has won another election victory and promises a second referendum on separation from the rest of Canada -- plus fa change ... -- and world recession has bitten deeply into cultural programmes. But the policies have not changed as the Federal Government continues to maintain its public subsidies for film through its organs Telefilm. Canada, the National Film Board, and the Canada Council. Support for film is strong at all levels: for film festivals, for film exhibition programmes, for visiting film-makers, and, through the embassies and high commissions, for external film programmes and touring film packages in major cities throughout the world. The culture versus commerce debate, always a problem for protectionists where mass entertainment is concerned, has been resolved by hybridization-film is now part of a sector known as the cultural industries, its place in the political arena strengthened by the suggestion of an unquantifiable dollar value. As other national film industries collapse, as in the UK, or falter, as in France, the Canadian model, based on stubbornness of purpose and commitment, is one to watch.
Desbarats, Carole, et al. ( 1993), Atom Egoyan.
Garel, Sylvain, and Pâquet, André (eds.) ( 1992), Les Cinénas du Canada.
Handling, Piers (ed.) ( 1983), The Shape of Rage: The Films of David Cronenberg.
Lowder, Rose (ed.) ( 1991), The Visual Aspect: Recent Canadian Experimental Films.
Morris, Peter ( 1978), Embattled Shadows: A History of Canadian Cinema 1895-1939.
---- ( 1984), The Film Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to More than 650 Canadian Films and Filmmakers.
In the late 1950s a new cinema began to appear in Latin America, carving out spaces for itself wherever it found the slightest chance, growing up even in the most inimical circumstances, indeed thriving upon them, for this was a cinema largely devoted to the denunciation of misery and the celebration of protest. In the space of ten or fifteen years, a movement developed which not only reached from one end of the continent to the other, but brought the cinema in Latin America to world-wide attention for the first time. It began with discrete and diverse initiatives in different countries, ranging from the Documentary Film School of Santa Fe in Argentina and the emergence of Cinema Novo in Brazil, to the creation of a new Film Institute in Havana. The dates and places are those of the recent history of Latin America. In Argentina and Brazil, growth and retrenchment have corresponded to the wax and wane of democracy. Cuban cinema is synonymous with the Cuban Revolution, Chilean cinema is another name for Popular Unity movement which elected Salvador Allende at the start of the 1970s. Ten years later came Nicaragua and El Salvador and the reflorescence of the idea of militant cinema which first developed in the 1960s, the decade of Che Guevara.
Some of the earliest initiatives occurred in out-of-theway places, like Cuzco in Peru, where a film club was set up in 1955 and Manuel Chambi and others started making short documentaries on ethnographic and socio-cultural themes. The 1950s saw the spread of film societies throughout the continent, the proliferation of filmmaking courses and contests, and the publication of magazines. It was in the pages of titles like Hablemos de cine in Peru and Cine al día in Venezuela that in the 1960s and 1970s the movement debated its values and sense of identity.
Many of these groups were linked to social movements, like the cultural club Nuestro Tiempo run by the Young Communists in Havana in the early 1950s, which harboured several future Cuban directors. The first international meeting-place for the young film-makers was a film festival in Montevideo set up in 1954 by the SODRE, Uruguay's national radio station and a progressive cultural promoter. Among the film-makers attending in 1958,