THE SETTING AND THE STUDY DESIGN
The city of Newark is a prototype of the urban crisis in America. The 1970 census confirmed that a clear majority of its 400,000 inhabitants is now Black. Every day an army of White commuters advances into the downtown business area and retreats again in the evening to "dormitories" in the suburbs. Large areas of the central city look like devastated hamlets in Vietnam -- partly the result of bulldozers that cleared acres of tenements for urban renewal tracts which have yet to progress beyond controversial and unfulfilled plans, partly the still unretouched scars of one of the worst of the urban riots during the long hot summer of 1967.
A blanket of pollution rises from the chemical plants and foundry furnaces along the Penn Central and Lackawanna tracks that crisscross the neighborhoods, although many manufacturing jobs must be sought elsewhere. The racket of jets landing and taking off from Newark Airport bounces off the splendid new office buildings along Broad and Market streets, hives full of female white-collar workers filing insurance premiums and invoices for the old firms of the Newark establishment. The brave facade cannot conceal the tackiness of the once fashionable department stores now converted into discount centers, the run-