Communist China's Economy, 1949-1962: Structural Changes and Crisis

By Cheng Chu-Yuan | Go to book overview
Policy, great concessions were made to the individual sector. A certain amount of denationalization was advocated in 1921. For example, by a decree of May 17, 1921, all enterprises covered by the earlier decree of November 29, 1920, which had not yet actually been taken over by the state, were forthwith declared restored to their previous owners. And on December 10, 1921, it was ordered that all enterprises with less than twenty workers were to be restored to their previous owners or leased to new owners. By the autumn of 1922, some 4,000 enterprises had been leased [61]. However, no such concessions were made by the Chinese Communists. Moreover, when the Soviet Communist Party adopted its New Economic Policy it was explicitly admitted that decisions made during the period of war communism had been erroneous. Lenin himself, on April 21, 1921, in an article on the Food Tax, frankly admitted that "war communism was thrust upon us by war and ruin. It was not, nor could it be, a policy that corresponded to the economic tasks of the proletariat. It was a temporary measure." In introducing the new policy at the 10th Congress, Lenin stated further: "Some of the things we were compelled to do by necessity. We did much that was simply wrong" [62].The Chinese Communists, although adopting a series of retreats in every respect, have not yet confessed any major mistakes [63]. In all official proclamations it is the natural calamities that are being held responsible for crop failures and the disastrous effects on economic life. The commune system is still regarded as an ideal system and the Big Leap Forward is still held to be the basic law of economic development. As Po I-po, Director of the Cabinet office for Industry and Communications, indicated in 1961, "One can forsee that after two or three years a new foundation will be laid for further development, stronger, deeper and more complete, and thus a new Leap Forward will appear" [64]. The over-all behavior of the Party provides a striking impression that the present retreat is merely a temporary strategy. When the great famine is tided over, leftist fancy will grow again, and more radical measures may be expected to follow.
REFERENCES
1. Hung-Ch'i No. 17, 1960. p. 1.
2. Liu Jih-hsin, "On the Relationship between Agriculture and Heavy Industry," Ta-Kung-Pao, Peking, February 2, 1961.
3. Ching-chi Yen-chiu (Economic Research), Peking, No. 6, 1960, p. 7.
4. According to W. W. Rostow, a country can attain maturity only after some sixty years of constant effort. See Rostow: The Stages of Economic Growth, ( Cambridge: MIT University Press, 1960), p. 9.

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Communist China's Economy, 1949-1962: Structural Changes and Crisis
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Foreword iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • Other Books by the Same Author xi
  • Abbreviations xii
  • Chapter 1 Introduction 1
  • References 3
  • Chapter 2 Major Features of China's Pre-Communist Economic Structure 4
  • References 9
  • Chapter 3 Chinese Communist Theories and Policies for Economic Structural Transformation 11
  • References 19
  • Chapter 4 Agricultural Collectivizsation 22
  • References 56
  • Chapter 5 Transformation of the Private Sector into the State-Operated Sector 60
  • References 82
  • Chapter 6 Establishment of the Central Planning Machinery and State Monopoly 84
  • References 104
  • Chapter 7 Basic Changes in the Component of the National Product 106
  • Chapter 8 Famine and Crisis 128
  • References 153
  • Chapter 9 Significance and Prospects 157
  • References 172
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion 175
  • Appendix a Note on Communist China's Statistical Data 181
  • References 189
  • Appendix II Conversion Tables 191
  • Selected Bibliography 194
  • Index 208
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