Intermediate Statistics: A Modern Approach

By James P. Stevens | Go to book overview

7 Analysis of Covariance
CONTENTS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Purposes of Covariance
7.3 Adjustment of Posttest Means
7.4 Reduction of Error Variance
7.5 Choice of Covariates
7.6 Numerical Example
7.7 Assumptions in Analysis of Covariance
7.8 Use of ANCOVA with Intact Groups
7.9 Computer Example for ANCOVA
7.10 Alternative Analyses
7.11 Bryant-Paulson Post Hoc Procedure
7.12 An Alternative to the Johnson-Neyman Technique
7.13 Use of Several Covariates
7.14 Computer Example with Two Covariates
7.15 Summary

7.1 INTRODUCTION

In Chapter 4 we examined the effect of two or more independent variables (factors) in explaining variation on the dependent variable. We set up an experimental design, and thus this method is called experimental control. In this chapter we consider explaining variation on the dependent variable by measuring the subjects on some other variable(s), called covariates, that are correlated with the dependent variable. Recall that the square of a correlation can be interpreted as "proportion of variance accounted for." Thus, if we find that I.Q. is correlated

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Intermediate Statistics: A Modern Approach
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Appendix 1: Obtaining the Mean and Variance on the Ti-30xa and Casio Fx-300sa Calculators 52
  • Appendix 2: Obtaining the Z Scores Within Each Group for a Variable Using Split File, Descriptives Procedure, and Case Summaries in Spss 53
  • 2 - One Way Analysis of Variance 63
  • 2.1 Introduction 63
  • 2.20 Summary 110
  • Appendix 111
  • 3 - Power Analysis 121
  • 3.1 Introduction 121
  • 3.10 Summary 139
  • 4 - Factorial Analysis of Variance 145
  • 4.1 Introduction 145
  • 4.8 Summary 193
  • Appendix: Doing a Balanced Two Way Anova with a Calculator 194
  • 5 - Repeated Measures Analysis 203
  • 5.1 Introduction 203
  • 5.15 Summary 234
  • 6 - Simple and Multiple Regression 239
  • 6.1 Simple Regression 239
  • 6.18 Summary of Important Points 292
  • Appendix: the Press Statistic 294
  • 7 - Analysis of Covariance 305
  • 7.1 Introduction 305
  • 7.15 Summary 335
  • Appendix a Data Sets 341
  • Appendix B Statistical Tables 371
  • Appendix C Power Tables 383
  • References 393
  • Answers to Selected Exercises 399
  • Author Index 419
  • Subject Index 421
  • Sas Statview Supplement for Intermediate Statistics a Modern Approach Second Edition 427
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