A Handbook for Data Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences: Statistical Issues

By Gideon Keren; Charles Lewis | Go to book overview

4 A Balanced Approach to Unbalanced Designs

Gideon Keren Free University of Amsterdam


INTRODUCTION

A problem encountered by many researchers in psychology and other disciplines is the one of an "unbalanced design" (also referred to as "unequal frequencies" or "non-orthogonal" design). This is the case in which the number of observations in different cells of an experimental design are not necessarily equal. The question of how to treat such designs has become a major controversial issue in recent years ( Appelbaum & Cramer, 1974; Cramer & Appelbaum, 1980; Herr & Gaebelein, 1978; Keren & Lewis, 1976, 1977; Overall & Spiegel, 1960; Overall, Spiegel, & Cohen, 1975; Speed & Hocking, 1976, to mention just a few). The purpose of the present chapter is to discuss briefly several methods that were recently proposed and to provide the reader with some guidelines of how to deal with a nonorthogonal design.

The approach presented in the chapter employs least square regression methods as a substitute for the traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA). Several investigators ( Cohen, 1968; Cohen & Cohen, 1975; Darlington, 1968; Kerlinger & Pedhazur, 1973) have pointed out the equivalence of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression (MR) and have advocated the use of the latter on grounds of greater flexibility. It is unfortunate that only a few researchers have indeed applied the MR approach and it is still the case that over 80% of the articles in psychological journals are employing the traditional ANOVA, even under circumstances where MR is the more appropriate tool at least in terms of flexibility and elegance. In the case of nonorthogonal designs it seems to the present author that the use of MR is almost unavoidable. The only treatment of unequal n's proposed within the traditional ANOVA is the so-called "unweighted

-95-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Handbook for Data Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences: Statistical Issues
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 540

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.