This last section incorporates several chapters that deal with important topics but cannot be classified under a single heading.
It is remarkable how little attention exploratory data analysis (EDA) has received in conventional statistic books of the social sciences. The orthodox emphasis on hypothesis testing (especially by psychologists, as noted in chapter 11 of the first volume) has often diverted researchers from essential and important issues. Data should be perceived as more than just the necessary input for testing a hypothesis; they may often contain new and unexpected insights into the phenomenon under investigation. EDA provides simple and systematic procedures for initial processing of the data. Some of the fundamentals of EDA are presented in chapter 12 by Smith and Prentice.
Chapter 13, by Wainer and Thissen, presents graphical data analysis. One possibility, though not the only one, is to view it as elaborating specific aspects of EDA. Another important fact concerns the compatibility between the graphical presentation of the data and the processing strategies that it invokes. This is an important area for more collaboration between statisticians and cognitive psychologists.
Rapid growth in the use of computers and corresponding statistical packages has had a marked impact on developments in all scientific branches. A comprehensive review of computer use in psychological research is presented by Church in chapter 14.