The region taken for study in Volumes I and II is the prewar territory of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia; Danzig, Memel and Zara are not considered. The region examined in Volumes III to V is the postwar area of those same states and of the German Democratic Republic (established in 1949). Thus East Prussia, Istria and Italian Dalmatia are not considered before the Second World War, but, except for northern East Prussia (absorbed into the USSR), are studied after the War. Conversely, eastern Poland (western Byelorussia), North Bukovina, Bessarabia and Ruthenia (Sub-Carpathian Ukraine) are in the prewar area, but not in the postwar.
A locality to which reference is made in a pre- 1945 context is cited in the first official language of the country within the frontiers existing in 1937; from mid-1945 onward the same rule applies, but within boundaries as they existed de facto in 1949. A list of variant place-names may be found, for example, in Norman J. G. Pounds, Eastern Europe, Longmans, London, 1969, pp. 877-89, Wilhelm Winkler, Statistisches Handbuch für das Gesamte Deutschtum, Verlag Deutsche Rundschau, Berlin, 1927, pp. 30-144 and Henryk Batowski, Slownik nazw miejscowych Europy srodkowej i wschodniej XIX i XX wieku, Warsaw, 1964.
Values are given either in the currency circulating at the time in the territory concerned or in United States dollars of 1934 gold parity; exceptions are stated. Exchange rates are in Table 0.1 in this Volume, 15.1 in Volume II and 0.3 in Volume IV.
Weights are in metric tonnes, written as tons by convention, and their subdivisions, the quintal or centner (i.e. 100 kg) and the kilogram.
To avoid confusion between Continental, United States and British usage of 'billion', the terms used for powers of ten are as follows: 109 thousand million, 1012 billion, 1018 trillion, 1024 quadrillion and 1036 quintillion. Where values in these magnitudes frequently appear in conjunction (in discussing inflation in chapter 21) the decimal power is added in parentheses for clarity.
Table titles specify the geographic area covered only where it is not east Europe or a substantial group of east European countries.
The following symbols are used in tables: (. .) not available; (-) nil or negligible (viz. smaller than the minimum magnitude to permit listing in the units cited); (*) estimated. Sources are cited at the foot of each table; the fuller statistical tabulations underlying chapters 6 and 7 may be found in Papers in East European Economics, 34 and 28 respectively.