The Economic History of Eastern Europe, 1919-1975 - Vol. 1

By M. C. Kaser; E. A. Radice | Go to book overview

Chapter 8
National Income and Product

E. LETHBRIDGE


A STATIC COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT IN EASTERN EUROPE

Eastern Europe between the Wars was characterized by widely varying levels of development between the different states, and by large disparities between the level of development of the region as a whole and that of western Europe, as a comparison of a first set of index numbers of economic development in Table 8.1 demonstrates. They bring out a point of


TABLE 8.1
East-West output comparisons in current prices for 1938
US dollars
Net national income Value of net output per worker
per head of Industry and
population Industry handicrafts Agriculture
Bulgaria 68 320 300 110
Romania 70-75* 430 290 80
Yugoslavia 81 360 300* 100*
Poland 104 500 400 130
Hungary 112 430 340 150
Czechoslovakia 176 550a 450a 200
France 236 .. 580 280
Germany 337 880b 796b 290
United States 521 .. 1730 580
* Rough estimate.
a 1937.
b 1936.
Source: Ecommic Survey of Europe in 1948, United Nations, Geneva, 1949, pp. 225 and 235, except for Romania
from Table 6.24 (NNI), 8.56 (industry and agricultural shares) and 8.58 (manpower) and for Yugoslavia from
Economic Survey of Europe in 1949, Geneva, 1950, pp. 273 (NNI) and 272 (population) converted at rate in Table 0.1

crucial importance, namely that Czechoslovakia's income per head was considerably greater than that of its east European neighbours. In fact it was in a category by itself, with Poland and Hungary next, followed at a large distance by the three most under-developed states, namely Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Broadly speaking, these general lines of economic development were followed by the other index numbers given, but in some cases the disparities revealed were not as great as in the case of incomes per head. Poland was considerably closer to Czechoslovakia in industrial output per worker than in income per head, and

-532-

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The Economic History of Eastern Europe, 1919-1975 - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Economic History of Eastern Europe 1919-75 ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Maps and Figures vi
  • Contributors to Volumes I and II vii
  • Notes xi
  • Acknowledgements xvii
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 General Characteristics of the Region Between the Wars 23
  • Chapter 2 Human Resources 66
  • Chapter 3 Agriculture 148
  • Chapter 4 Raw Materials and Energy 210
  • Chapter 5 Industry 222
  • Chapter 6 Infrastructure 323
  • Chapter 7 Foreign Trade Performance and Policy 379
  • Chapter 8 National Income and Product 532
  • Index 599
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