imitated his format. Faced with overwhelming competition, Sullivan and his show
went off the air in 1971. But "The Ed Sullivan Show" has been a powerful force in
the entertainment industry. For 23 years, Ed Sullivan, a cultural gatekeeper, helped
define American popular culture; he pushed rock music into the mainstream by
legitimizing its sounds, its looks, its beat, and its teenage audience.
Michael Harris, Always on Sunday. Ed Sullivan: An Inside View ( New York: Meredith
The World Almanac and Book of Facts, ( New York: Scripps-Howard, 1991), 318.
Paul M. Hirsch, "The Role of Television and Popular Culture in Contemporary Society".
In Television: The Critical View, 3rd edition, ed. by
Horace Newcomb ( New York: Oxford, 1982),291.
Patricia Romanowski and
Holly George-Warren, eds., The New Rolling Stone
Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll ( New York: Fireside, A Rolling Stone Press Book, 1995), 847.
Joe Stuessy, Rock and Roll. Its History and Stylistic Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990),367-368.
Jim Curtis, Rock Eras: Interpretations of Music and Society, 1954- 1984 ( Bowling
Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Press, 1987), 12.
Peter Wicke, Rock Music: Culture, Aesthetics and Sociology ( Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 4.
Richard N. Current, et al., American History: A Survey, 8th edition ( New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992), 863.
David P. Szatmary, Rockin' in Time: A Social History of Rock and Roll, 2nd edition
(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991), 22.
Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number One Hits ( New York: Billboard
Publications, 1985), 2.
Stuessy, Rock and Roll, 78.
John Leonard, A Really Big Show: A Visual History of "The Ed Sullivan Show." Claudia Falkenburg and
Andrew Solt, eds. ( New York: Penguin, 1992),23.
Stan Goldstein, Prime Time Television: A Pictorial History from Milton Berle
to Falcon Crest ( New York: Crown, 1983), 11.
Donna McCrohan, Prime Time, Our Time: America's Life and Times Through the
Prism of Television ( Rocklin, CA: Prima, 1990), 85.
Timothy Scheurer, "The Variety Show in TV Genres". In TV Genres: A Handbook and
Brian Rose, ed. ( Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985), 318.
Geoffrey Stokes, and
Ken Tucker, Rock of Ages: The Rolling Stone History
of Rock & Roll ( New York: Summit Books, 1986), 111.
Linda Martin and
Kerry Segrave, Anti-Rock: The Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll ( Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1988), 63-64.
Szatmary, Rockin' in Time, 50.
Solt, A Really Big Show, 188.