Cicero's Outstanding Period
Cicero achieved his greatest success during December 1943 and the early weeks of 1944. Moyzisch was certain the spy's accomplishments during this period of critical developments would establish beyond question his credibility in Berlin: "Never before and never again did he deliver so much or such important material." Almost every northbound courier plane took fresh films of secret papers, surely meaning that "there could no longer be the slightest doubt about his genuineness."1 Papen was more realistic about the attitudes of leaders in Berlin. Nevertheless, the spy's information was valuable because of its detailed coverage of a series of major Allied policy conferences and of Britain's subsequent efforts to persuade Turkey to abandon its neutrality and finally commit itself to active participation in the war. Ankara's steadfast resistance to such pressures soon brought about the worst period in its wartime relations with the exasperated British.
Throughout the weeks and stages of frustrating negotiations, Cicero provided more than enough evidence to let Germany counteract some moves and adjust its military thinking. In the end the Turks' own intransigence held Britain off and shaped events: Ankara, for reasons entirely of its own, acted in the manner most favorable to Germany. To understand the nature and scope of the issues and the significance of the spy's work it is necessary to look at both his continued activities and the goals being pursued by the opposing powers. The first phase of the situation covered development of a new Allied military plan and Turkey's rejection in mid-December of the resulting demand for a direct contribution.
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