of the Occupation
in the Life
of the Individual
IN ORDEB TO understand the role of the occupation in the life of the individual we must first have some understanding of the individual and of his needs. The old concept of economic man has proved totally inadequate to explain why men work as they do, or what it is that they are working for. That men work just to make a living is obviously not true. It is sufficient to point out that, if this were true, as soon as food and shelter had been assured, work would stop. It is not thus that man has built his civilizations. Studies of morale in industry and of job satisfaction have shown that much more is involved in and expected of a job than a pay check.
Different authors have discussed lists of needs or drives which seem to them to be involved in work in various ways. For example, Cleeton lists food; bodily well-being; activity; mating; sharing thoughts and feelings; dominance over people and elements; self-determination; achievement; approbation; and ideation.
Vernon lists as drives which he found to influence university women in selecting an occupation: social conformity; altruism; activity; independence; power; superiority; social admiration; pleasure; and ease. He adds that different drives can operate in different individuals to produce the choice of the same career, and that the same or very similar drives could result in the choice of very different careers.
Hendrick postulates a "work principle." He says that work is motivated primarily by the need for efficient use of the muscular and intellectual tools, even though the work performance may also satisfy such other needs as aggression and sex and self-preservation. His work principle states that man seeks and finds primary pleasure in the efficient use of minds and hands and tools to control or alter his environment.
Peerbolte points out that labor which is only self-preservative in