The first volume of this series examined the dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction. Dimensions of Thinking was originally a book ( Marzano et al., 1988) that provided a comprehensive framework for classifying and understanding various processes, skills, and other elements of thinking. The framework included these dimensions of thinking: metacognition, critical and creative thinking, thinking processes, core thinking skills, and the relationship of content-area knowledge to thinking. The chapters in the first volume were organized around these dimensions, yet they also offer an expansion to include discussion of the cognitive processes as they occur in a variety of learning contexts. Emphasis is placed on an expanded view of thinking, linking cognition with the affective, social, and physical contexts of learning. Perusal of the chapters should convince nearly any reader that a need for educational reform is both eminent and massive, as little of what is described is currently being taught in schools.
In Volume 1, the chapter authors examined the various types of metacognitive and cognitive processes thought to be used in human cognition. Included were examinations of metacognition as a mean of improving both academic learning and instruction ( Paris & Winograd), and an exploration of the interdependence and influence of metacogni-