The Change Process and Its Implications in Teaching Thinking
Daniel U. Levine
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Eric J. Cooper
Simon and Schuster
After the editors of this volume asked us to review the literature on successful implementation of innovations in schools and other organizations, our major task was to identify the most important conclusions and generalizations from this enormous body of knowledge. In doing so, we tried to give particular attention to material that may be most relevant for educators who are initiating, or who plan to initiate, projects to improve student performance with respect to thinking and other higher order mental processes.
Research and analysis that deals with implementation of change and the change process constitute too large a field to summarize comprehensively in one relatively short chapter. Distinct subareas can be identified that deal with differing stages, such as adoption, implementation, and institutionalization, and with a variety of related topics, such as the role of change agents, linkage with external resources, dissemination of new knowledge, assessment of organizational structures and cultures, feedback of data to facilitate change, and planning for change. Observers such as Fullan ( 1982) and Schmuck and Runkel ( 1985) have provided summaries of research in these and other subareas. Rather than simply summarizing the results of major studies and research reviews, which sometimes differ substantially from one author to another, we begin by discussing four fundamental issues that should be considered when undertaking a significant innovation. Then, we briefly review 10 types of prerequisites and antecedents for successful change. The final sections deal with manageability and implementability of innovations and with general conclusions that are