EARLY SETTLEMENT AND TRADITIONAL CULTURE
The earliest European settlement of New Mexico was made by a relatively small group led into the area from Mexico by Juan de Ofiate in 1598. As mentioned in the Introduction, the descendants of this group and others who had joined them at irregular intervals were completely ejected from the area in 1680 by the Pueblo Indian Revolt. Thirteen years later a successful resettlement was made under the leadership of Diego de Vargas. Both of these conquering groups were composed of a small elite of military leaders, common soldiers, a large number of Spanish- Mexican farmers, some wives, and a number of Indian retainers ( Chavez 1954:xiii; Woodward 1935:28-30).
Three general types of settlement seem to have been made. One was the administrative and military center, represented by Santa Fe and Albuquerque which were established according to the gridiron plan centering on a plaza, similar to countless other such towns all over Spanish America. McWilliams ( 1943:137) and Loomis ( 1943:13) suggest that this plaza-centered town was typical of all Spanish settlements in New Mexico. Bunting, however, has said that in this area the term "plaza" or "placita"