social factors (stressors, stress responses) and latent herpesviruses have been implicated as potentially contributing to the variance in immune decrements and HIV-1 disease progression, and these two sets of factors are also known to be interrelated. The empirical work presented here suggests that both stressors and stress responses (emotional expression, cognitive processing, and coping strategies) are related to impairments in individuals' ability to control viruses such as EBV. Moreover, the most recent work suggests that behavioral interventions that modify the ways individuals process and deal with stressors may help to normalize immunologic control over these viruses. Importantly these effects have been established in both healthy individuals and those infected with HIV-1. Only by following these HIV-1 infected cohorts over clinically meaningful periods will it be possible to establish any health-related claims for such interventions. Future work should also explore the psychosocial correlates of other viruses known to be ubiquitous in the largest populations of HIV-1 infected men (e.g., hepatitis-B) and women (e.g., human papilloma virus; Carpenter, Mayer, Fisher, Desai, & Durand, 1989), which may be susceptible to psychosocial modulation on the one hand ( Antoni & Goodkin, 1991; Glaser, Kiecolt-Glaser, Bonneau, Malarkey, & Hughes, 1992), and directly influential in the form and severity of HIV-1 disease manifestation in each gender ( Antoni, 1991; Antoni, et al., 1992; Goodkin, Antoni, Helder, & Sevin, in press).
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