research conceptualizations and the appropriate experimental design and methods to answer the questions being asked.
Future research concerned with brain, behavior, and the immune system and health and illness should include well-conceptualized studies utilizing clinically relevant immune measures. Findings from such studies could provide valuable information for both investigators and clinicians. This review has emphasized that psychologic and biologic effects on the immune system are multifaceted and include complex neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter interactions. More basic knowledge about brain-neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter processes is needed, and the availability of such basic knowledge may lend itself to further understanding of brain, behavior, and the immune system and health and illness.
Future research in psychoneuroimmunology offers an exciting opportunity to increase our knowledge in neurobiology and to provide a solid foundation for clinically relevant studies.
This research was supported in part by National Institute of Mental Health Research Scientist Award MH00680 (Dr. A. H. Miller) and research grant RO1MH47674.
The authors thank Abrar Husain for his help in preparing the manuscript.
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