lenge to generalize and derive rigorously the Egyptian geometrical formulas, or as a curiosity about the properties of regular geometrical solids like cubes and pyramids, or as an interest in an arithmetic based on the twice-times multiplication table and the manipulation of unit fractions.
Although there seems little doubt that Greek doctors enlarged their pharmacopoeia with Egyptian drugs, other types of influence of Egyptian medicine on Greek medicine are more difficult to document; and certain radical differences between the two medical traditions are very striking. Specifically, the Greeks never adopted the central and dominating Egyptian anatomical-physiological theory of the mtw (a network of vessels emanating from the heart and reuniting near the anus) and its associated therapeutic procedure of frequent purgations via clyster; and the Greeks used wine or vinegar in treating wounds instead of the Egyptians' honey and animal fat or slabs of fresh meat.
Reprinted (with minor revisions) by permission from History of Science 31 ( 1993): 227-87. Martin Bernal has responded to this essay, and I have commented on his response: History of Science 32 ( 1994): 445-68; a part of those comments has been included in the present essay as a concluding summary.
My thanks for helpful discussions to Gary Reger, History Department, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut; Martha Risser, Classics Department, also of Trinity College, Hartford; and Howard Stein, Philosophy Department, University of Chicago.