"Masculinity," "Femininity," and "International Relations": Or Who Goes to the "Moon" with Bonaparte and the Adder?
Can there be "masculinity," "femininity," and "international relations?" Are they possible--separately and conjoined?
No, of course not. Fluff they are:
One reason the rhetoric of hegemonic versions of masculinity is so compelling is that it rests on an apparent certainty that "a man is a man" everywhere, and everywhere this means the same thing. . . . [And yet] notions of maleness, designations of manhood, and attributions of masculinity have no essential referent, nor even a finite range of referents. 1
As feminists have revealed in the last decade, every public power arrangement has depended on the control of femininity as an idea. 2
Professionalized IR discourse, whether as abstract strategic doctrine advertising itself as realism brought up to date, or as most alternatives that would take us "beyond realism," is one of the most dubious of many dubious sciences. 3
So there is no gender in or and international relations?