Throughout this paper we have used terms such as 'lipstick lesbian',
and 'gay skinhead', and 'heterosexual'. However we recognize that
these identities are not uniform. Similarly, for the purposes of this
paper only we have felt it necessary to adopt the false dichotomy of
The labels are important: Ben Sherman, Fred Perry, Doctor Marten, Levi--even skinheads outside the UK (such as those in the USA, as
part of the 'Queercore' scene) fetishize the same brands of clothes.
In December 1990 16 gay men were given prison sentences or fined
for engaging in consensual sado-masochistic (SM) sex acts. This followed a police investigation, code-named Operation Spanner, prompted
by the chance finding of a videotape of SM activities. A campaign,
Countdown on Spanner, mobilised SMers of all sexualities to protest,
the biggest single event being an 'SM Pride' march in 1992. The men
had their convictions upheld by the Court of Appeal and the Law Lords,
and are now taking the matter to the European Court of Human
Rights (for details, see Bell, 1993).
Russell Square is a leafy square and the gay cruising area in
Bloomsbury, central London. The Countdown on Spanner march
passed through this square en route to the adjacent University of
London Union. The town of Rostock in the new German 'Land' of
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of prolonged violent far-right
attacks on hostels housing immigrants during 1992.
Abbott C. ( 1992), 'Regal Landscapes? A Geography of Queens!' dissertation, Anglia Polytechnic.
Adler S., and
Brenner J. ( 1992), "'Gender and Space: Lesbians and Gay
Men in the City'", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16: 24-34.
Allen R. ( 1992), The Complete Richard Allen, i ( Dunoon, Skinhead Times
Anon. ( 1992), "'Tranquil Sensuality'" (television reviews), Gay Times
Ansell D. ( 1992), "'Not All Skinheads are Fascist'" (letter), Gay Times
Bartky S. L. ( 1990), Femininity and Domination ( London, Routledge).
Bell D. J. ( 1993), 'Citizenship and the Politics of Pleasure', paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Institute of British Geographers, Egham, Jan.
Benstock S. ( 1987), Women on the Left Bank: Paris 1900-1940 ( London, Virago).