Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada

By Arthur R. M. Lower | Go to book overview

9: Aftermath of conquest:
two worlds in one

WHEN THE LAST FRENCH TROOPS and the last French officials had disappeared down the river, Canadians must have felt much like the prisoner in his cell when he hears the bolt shot on the door, the unfriendly guard outside. Yet even between guard and prisoner there springs up sooner or later a species of intimacy--they at least come to know each other's shortcomings. So with a conquered and a conquering people. At first suspicion, sullen looks from the one, arrogance from the other. Gradually, little acts of accommodation, such as everywhere pass between humans thrown together. Then, here and there some knowledge, individual friendships like that between John Fraser and Dr. Badelart, the Highlander the patient of the French doctor on the actual field of battle that fateful September day of 1759, the French doctor the prisoner of the Highlander, close friends for forty years thereafter.1

It was not, however, merely a matter of individuals meeting, but of two societies totally different from each other and neither uniform within itself. Both had their ranks and classes. French society was uniform in religion and in outlook, but from the top of its 'gentry' to the bottom of its peasantry, the distance was great. English society was hardly uniform in a single particular, for not only was there the traditional gulf between the aristocrat and his 'inferiors,' but there was also a wide, vocal and powerful layer inserted between the 'gentleman' and 'the lower orders.' This middle class was powerful and constantly challenged the ruling class. Moreover, its members were often pitted against the ruling class by denominational differences.


The English ruling class

The English ruling class, in which were comprised prac-

-95-

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Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xv
  • Part I: New France xxv
  • 1: France Comes to America 1
  • 2: the First Impact Of the Wilderness 10
  • 3: the Foundation Stones Of New France 18
  • 4: A Community Formed 27
  • 5: the Community Established 40
  • 6: New France And Roman Catholicism 56
  • 7: New France Reaches The Provincial Stage 71
  • 8: the Lilies Come Down! 81
  • Part II- British North America 93
  • 9: Aftermath of Conquest 95
  • 10: the First Attempt At Living Together 116
  • 11: the Private Quarrel Of the English 135
  • 12: the First Wave Of English Settlement 143
  • 113: the War of 1812, Constructive Conflict 173
  • 14: the Great Days of Settlement, 1820-1850 187
  • Notes to Chapter 15. 212
  • 16: Mid-Century 240
  • 17: the Height of Prosperity 259
  • 18: the Period of Confederation 273
  • Part Iii: Canada 287
  • 19: A Nation Begun 289
  • 20: the New Nation 299
  • 21: A Sturdy Yeomanry 327
  • 22: the Birth of Modern Canada 345
  • 23: the Transcontinental Country 358
  • 24: New Canadians 371
  • 25: the Immigrant Stocks In Canada 384
  • 27: Yesterday and To-Day 408
  • 28: New Gods for Old 423
  • Index *
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