COLONIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Jean Talon, the first Intendant. His functions and instructions. His vision for Canada. Method of colonization: emigrants, "King's daughters" and soldiers. Increase in the number and size of families. Assimilation of the Indians. Aid to colonists. Importation of farm animals. Agriculture. Industry. Commerce. Search for an ocean port. The beaver trade. The coureurs de bois. The Indians and the liquor traffic. Departure of Talon. His successor, Bouteroue. Courcelles and the militia.
While M. de Tracy was taking steps to insure the safety of the colony, the Intendant devoted himself entirely to the development of the country. Talon, who was chosen by Colbert to be Canada's first intendant, came from a family of magistrates, all believers in the Gallican doctrine of the right of kings. He had served as commissioner to the armies and later in the important post of Intendant of the province of Hainaut. The product of a sound classical education, he could carry on a discussion in Latin or write pleasant occasional verses. Colbert knew him as a man of courtly manners in whom intelligence and imagination were combined with an inexhaustible capacity for hard work. His career in New France was to reveal in him a mind of broad vision, capable of building for the present and planning for the future. 1
This first intendant arrived bearing a commission which entrusted to him the entire civil administration of the colony. Only the army was excluded from his jurisdiction. As Intendant of Justice he could hear cases of any category, take proceedings against persons accused of any crime, give judgment in civil actions, and order all things as he deemed necessary and proper. As Intendant of Finance he administered the public funds, and audited the military expenses of the Governor; and as Intendant of