Restraints in War
[If someone were] to lose his little finger tomorrow he would not sleep tonight, but, provided he never saw them, he would snore with the most profound security over the ruin of a hundred million of his brethren.
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
In our discussion of arms races and deterrence, we have concentrated on such questions as the following: What has been the historic experience? What are some analytical perspectives that may help us understand these complex issues? What evidence is there to support assertions about the causes and consequences of arms races? Occasionally we have alluded to moral and ethical considerations as possible restraints on behavior, but that has been the extent of our discussion of ethics and morality. We have not gone to the further questions: Is morality merely a matter of beating the Communists by whatever means? What actions are moral or ethical? If a war did occur, what principles should guide our own behavior, or what principles would we want to guide the behavior of our leaders? In fact, the issue of limited war—especially limited nuclear war—not only raises questions about what can happen under various conditions, but