Democracy in Africa: The Hard Road Ahead

By Marina Ottaway | Go to book overview

ing the process but also manipulating it. And manipulating, furthermore, while also safeguarding the broader interests of the United States.

The Clinton administration and earlier the Bush administration embraced the cause of democracy in their policy toward Africa. David Gordon was involved in the formulation of U.S. policy to promote democracy in Africa as a Congressional staff member. His contribution to this book reflects the concerns and dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers.


Notes
1.
Adam Przeworski, Democracy and the Market ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 51.
2.
Guillermo O'Donnell and Philippe Schmitter, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule:Tentative Conclusions About Uncertain Democracies ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), p. 11.
3.
Schmitter and O'Donnell point out that in a transition, the rules of the political game are not defined but are hotly contested, since all parties know that the rules will contribute to determining winners and losers in the future. In a premature closure, the rules are defined unilaterally by one side, thus precluding further contestation. What distinguished these premature closures from a reversal to authoritarianism is that, on paper at least, the rules are reasonably democratic—except that they block the transformation under the circumstances. See O'Donnell and Schmitter, Transitions:Tentative Conclusions, p. 6.
4.
To mention only some very prominent statements on the preconditions for democracy, Barrington Moore, Jr., The Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1967), p. 418, declares "no bourgeoisie, no democracy"; Seymour Martin Lipset, "Some Social Requisites for Democracy:" Economic Development and Political Legitimacy, American Political Science Review 53, no. 1: 69-105, focuses on economic development; Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave:Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), also stresses the importance of economic development; Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work:Civic Traditions in Modern Italy ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), singles out a historically developed pattern of associational life, which he calls "social capital," as the substratum that makes democracy possible. Pioneering work on the concept of civil society in the African context is found in Donald Rothchild and Naomi Chazan, The Precarious Balance:State and Society in Africa ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1988).
5.
Studies of African urbanization, largely neglected by students of democratization, offer considerable evidence concerning both the extent of social change and its limits. They also provide an important reminder that the emergence of voluntary organizations, too often regarded as a recent phenomenon that augurs well for democracy, is not a new phenomenon at all, and that it has not prevented the consolidation of authoritarian regimes in the past. See, for example, Kenneth Little, West African Urbanization:A Study of Voluntary Associations and Social Change ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967) and African Women in Towns ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973); Akin Mabogunje, Urbanization inNigeria

-13-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Democracy in Africa: The Hard Road Ahead
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 176

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.