Democracy in Africa: The Hard Road Ahead

By Marina Ottaway | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
See Eboe Hutchful and Abdoulaye Bathily, eds., The Military and Militarism in Africa ( Dakar: Codesria, Forthcoming).
2.
Robin Luckham, "The Military, Militarization, and Democratization in Africa:"A Survey of Literature and Issues, African Studies Review 37, no. 2 ( September 1994): 13-75; Henry Bienen, Armed Forces, Conflict and Change in Africa ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1989); and Claude Welch, No Farewell to Arms? Military Disengagement.from Politics in Africa and Latin America ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987).
3.
On Kenya, see Frank Holmquist and Michael Ford, "Stalling Political Change:"Moi's Way in Kenya, Current History ( April 1995): 177-181; on Somalia, see Hussein Adam, "The Military and Militarism:"Rethinking the Somali Political Experience, in Hutchful and Bathily, Military in Africa.
4.
See "Democracy Brings Turmoil to the Congo", New York Times, October 14, 1994, p. 3, in which a Congolese economist is quoted as saying: "Democratic elections are the worst thing that ever happened to this country."
5.
See, for instance, Brian Loveman, "'Protected Democracies' and Military Guardianship:"Political Transitions in Latin America, 1978-1993, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 36, no. 2 ( summer 1994): 105-189; Jean Crugel , "Transitions From Authoritarian Rule:"Lessons from Latin America, Political Studies 39 ( June 1991): 363-368; and Richard Millet, "An End to Militarism? Democracy and the Armed Forces", Current History ( February 1995): 71-75.
6.
Julius Ihonvbere, "The Military and Nigerian Society:"The Abacha Coup and the Crisis of Democratization in Nigeria, in Hutchful and Bathily, Military in Africa.
7.
Alfred Stepan, Rethinking Military Politics:Brazil and the Southern Cone ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988).
8.
Eboe Hutchful, "Military Issues in the Democratic Transitions in Africa", in Hutchful and Bathily, Military in Africa.
9.
Stepan, Rethinking Military Politics.
10.
Virgilo Bertran, "Some Lessons Learned in Civil-Military Relations in Latin America", (paper presented to the Conference on Civil-Military Relations in Latin America, the Democracy Project, School of International Service, American University, May 4-6, 1995).
11.
Personal communication, Washington, D.C., 1995.
13.
Khabele Matlosa, "Military Rule and Withdrawal from Power:"The Case of Lesotho? in Hutchful and Bathily, Military in Africa.
14.
I thank Robin Luckham for this piece of information.
15.
General Salihu Ibrahim, Chief of Army Staff, September 15, 1993. Cited in Olusegun Obasanjo, "Leadership and Accountability", TELL (Lagos), December 20, 1993, and quoted in Ihonvbere, "Military and Nigerian Society," in Hutchful and Bathily, Military Africa. Although Ibrahim was unable to effect his reforms, his agenda of reprofessionalization has been picked up by other officers. According to Major-General Alwali Kazir, an overhaul of the Nigerian army is in the works. Curiously, even as the military regime once more tightens its grip on political power in Nigeria, Kazir in a speech in early 1995 "reaffirmed the subordination of the army to civil and democratic structures," providing further evidence of the distanc-

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