Development of the
Effective Schools Process
The history of the Effective Schools "movement" is remarkable. At times, the movement has surged like a tidal wave. At other times, it has seemed little more than an eddy.
One of the reasons for this inconsistency is that none of the early researchers of Effective Schools in the 1960s and 1970s was aware of the vast literature on organizational behavior that was then available. As social psychologists and sociologists, they used sources from sociology, political science, and psychology. These sources did not contain the extensive findings from management studies of organizational behavior, specifically the management of change. Thus the early researchers failed to take into account the necessity of considering organizational development before the schools began their change or development efforts. Consequently, the educators who attempted to apply the early Effective Schools Research often were flying on faith.
Some inconsistency also arose because Effective Schools is a process model. Over the years the Effective Schools movement has borrowed from numerous disciplines: psychology, sociology, education administration, organizational behavior studies, curriculum and instruction, and political science, especially the policy implementation literature. While research in the field of education always has been multidisciplinary to some extent, most investigations even today tend to focus on a single area, such as admin