Who Makes Public Policy?: The Struggle for Control between Congress and the Executive

By Robert S. Gilmour; Alexis A. Halley et al. | Go to book overview

10
Resolving Policy Differences: Foreign
Aid and Human Rights

G. CALVIN MACKENZIE


Introduction

Picture two giant sumo wrestlers, each powerful, experienced, and unrelenting. They battle round after round. One applies a hold to gain the advantage until the other develops a counterhold to reclaim control. These two giants know each other well, and they know their own strengths. Their power derives from self-respect and skill and the desire to represent their regions ably. When the end comes, the art of combat has been refined, but neither has vanquished the other. It is a draw. Nobody wins. They will have to fight again another day.

For almost two decades, Congress and the executive branch have fought in much the same way to determine the role that human rights concerns should play in foreign aid decisions. The advantage has shifted from branch to branch, as power energized counterpower, technique invited countertechnique. But neither branch has won, and the struggle continues.

Twenty years ago, one rarely heard human rights and foreign aid mentioned in the same hearing. Now they are often mentioned in the same breath. Human rights has moved to a place of prominence in foreign assistance policy, but it did not get there without much argument and distrust. Nor is the dust yet settled. The principle that foreign assistance decisions should address the human rights policies of recipient countries is embedded in statute, in bureaucratic organization, and in widely shared understandings and expectations. It is the law of the land. But the application and interpretation of the principle continue to generate debate and political struggle.

This case explores the transition in foreign assistance policy over the past two decades, focusing especially on the central contest between Congress and the executive branch over the role that human rights should play in the policy. The question here is not which branch won, for neither did, but how they fought and why. What role did Congress play in the transi

-261-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Who Makes Public Policy?: The Struggle for Control between Congress and the Executive
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 390

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.