The Muslims of America

By Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad | Go to book overview

the sixties the Muslim students started to organize outside the FIA. At the same time what was known as the "Sunni groups" started to organize parallel to the Nation of Islam. In the midseventies Warith Deen Muhammad effected the transition of the Nation of Islam to orthodoxy. About the same time ISNA was emerging in the immigrant sector, replacing the FIA and building on the new and more Islamically developed communities.

Many argue that those things that have kept various groupings within the Islamic community separated were at least partially removed, and the associations of persons who consider themselves American Muslims are coming closer to a position of cooperation and commonality.


Notes
1.
I have relied mainly on my firsthand information accumulated during my long involvement with the Muslim communities and organizations across the continent. However, two references I found useful and did consult are Yvonne Y. Haddad, A Century of Islam in America, an occasional paper published by the American Institute for Islamic Affairs ( Washington, D.C.: Middle East Institute, 1986), and M. Y. Shawarbi , Al-Islam in America ( Cairo: Lajnat Al-Bayan Al-Arabi, 1960).
2.
For further information, see Sameer Y. Abraham and Nabeel Abraham, Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities ( Detroit: Wayne State University, 1983); Baha Abu Laban, An Olive Branch on the Family Tree: The Arabs in Canada ( Toronto: McClelan and Steward, 1980); Barbara C. Aswad, ed., Arabic-Speaking Communities in American Cities ( New York: Center for Migration Studies of New York, 1974); Abdo A. Elkholy, The Arab Moslems in the United States ( New Haven: College and University Press, 1966); and Alixa Neff, Becoming Americans: The Early Arab Immigrant Experience ( Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985).
3.
See Umhau C. Wolf, "Muslims in the American Midwest," The Muslim World 50 ( 1960), 39-48.
4.
E. E. Calverly, "Negro Muslims in Hartford," The Muslim World 55 ( 1965), 340‐ 45; A. H. Fauset, Black Gods of the Metropolis ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944); Frank T. Simpson, "The Moorish Science Temple and Its 'Koran,'" The Muslim World37 ( 1947), 56-61.
5.
For the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, see his Fall of America ( Chicago: Muhammad Temple of Islam No. 2, 1973); Message to the Black Man ( Chicago: Muhammad Mosque of Islam No. 2, 1965); The Supreme Wisdom: Solution to the So‐ Called Negroes Problem ( Chicago: University of Islam, 1957).
6.
For studies on the Nation of Islam, see E. U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism ( New York: Dell, 1962) and Eric C. Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1961).
7.
For the teachings of Warith Deen Muhammad, see As the Light Shineth from the East ( Chicago: WDM Publications, 1980); Lectures of W. D. Muhammad ( Chicago: WDM Publications, 1978).
8.
For the teachings of Isa Muhammad, see The Message of the Messenger Is Right and Exact ( Brooklyn, N.Y.: Isa Muhammad, 1979); Racism in Islam ( Brooklyn, N.Y.: Isa Muhammad, 1982); What and Where Is Hell? ( Brooklyn, N.Y.: Isa Muhammad, 1980).

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The Muslims of America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Religion in America Series *
  • The Muslims of America *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Contents *
  • Contributors *
  • Introduction- the Muslims of America 3
  • Notes 8
  • I- The Muslims of the United States *
  • 1- Muslim Organizations in the United States 11
  • Notes 24
  • 2- Estimate of Muslims Living in America 25
  • Notes 35
  • References 36
  • II- Perceptions of Muslims in the United States *
  • 3- Perspectives of American Churches on Islam and the Muslim Community in North America 39
  • Notes 49
  • 4- The Muslim as the "Other" 53
  • Notes 61
  • III- Islamic Thought in the United States *
  • 5- Ismail R. Al-Faruqi 65
  • Notes 78
  • 6- Seyyed Hossein Nasr 80
  • Notes 92
  • 7- The Legacy of Fazlur Rahman 96
  • Notes 105
  • IV- Islamic Activity in the United States *
  • 8- Political Activity of Muslims in America 111
  • Notes 123
  • 9- Da''Wa in the West 125
  • Notes 134
  • 10- Muslims in Prison 136
  • Notes 151
  • 11- Islamic Education in the United States and Canada 157
  • Notes 173
  • V- Muslim Women in Intercultural Perspective *
  • 12- African-American Muslim Women 177
  • Notes 186
  • 13- Two-Way Acculturation 188
  • Notes 200
  • VI- American Muslims and the Question of Identity *
  • 14- Islamic Issues for Muslims in the United States 205
  • Notes 215
  • 15- American Foreign Policy in the Middle East and Its Impact on the Identity of Arab Muslims in the United States 217
  • Notes 231
  • 16- Convergence and Divergence in an Emergent Community 236
  • Notes 248
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