The Muslims of America

By Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad | Go to book overview

madrasa system is a subject for future discussion and study. This intention itself suggests theoretical and pedagogical implications that must be addressed if North American societies are to achieve educational systems that allow each group to preserve its identity while maintaining its equilibrium within itself and in relation to other groups in the society.


Notes
1.
Many people have contributed directly or indirectly to this author's Ph.D. research on Muslims' perception, practice, and transmission of the Islamic belief system in the context of the Western secular societies of North America, of which this chapter is only a part. In particular, I wish to acknowledge the late Isma'il R. al Faruqi of Temple University, an ad hoc member of my Graduate Committee, and Robert L. Bruce of Cornell University, my academic adviser, both of whom have contributed significantly to shaping ideas, stating concepts, and reporting results. Special thanks are also due to Sid Doan, who helped me prepare the manuscript.
2.
See, for example, A. A. Elkholy, The Arab Moslems in the United States: Religion and Assimilation ( New Haven: College and University Press Publishers, 1966); E. A. Waugh, B. Abu-Laban, and R. B. Qureshi, eds., The Muslim Community in North America ( Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1983); and Y. Y. Haddad and A. T. Lummis, Islamic Values in the United States: A Comparative Study ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
3.
Islam is viewed here as a belief system that constitutes a philosophical foundation of thought and action, incorporating religion (in the narrow sense, and as understood by the secular view) as a system of faith and worship only. (See Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, 1972).
4.
The definitions of "secular" and "secularism" are derived from the Random House Dictionary ( 1968).
5.
F. Rahman, Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, No. 15, 1982), p. 132.
6.
Though the Canadian Constitution does not explicitly state the separation of church and state, the general practice of government and institutions indicates that authority rests with the legislatures.
7.
See M. Arkoun, "The Islamic Consciousness: A Cultural Profile," Cultures 4 ( 1977) 66-93, in which he adds that in the early twentieth century the human heart transformed the "God of Worth" into the "growth of mind" as the goal and the "social worth" as the criterion.
8.
Empiricists from Hume to twentieth-century logical positivists have cast considerable doubt on the possibility of doing metaphysics. On the other hand, empiricism has had much of the flavor of a worldview, generating not just views of knowledge and science, but of psychology, ethics, and politics as well. See Kenneth A. Strike and George J. Posner, "Types of Synthesis and Their Criteria," in Spencer A. Ward and Linda J. Reed, eds., Knowledge Structure and Use: Implications for Synthesis and Interpretation ( Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983), pp. 344-62.
9.
Represented in the opening Sura (chapter) 1:1-7.
10.
"Fitrat Allah allati fatar al-nas alayha": According to the pattern that Allah has made mankind (S.30:30).

-173-

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The Muslims of America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Religion in America Series *
  • The Muslims of America *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Contents *
  • Contributors *
  • Introduction- the Muslims of America 3
  • Notes 8
  • I- The Muslims of the United States *
  • 1- Muslim Organizations in the United States 11
  • Notes 24
  • 2- Estimate of Muslims Living in America 25
  • Notes 35
  • References 36
  • II- Perceptions of Muslims in the United States *
  • 3- Perspectives of American Churches on Islam and the Muslim Community in North America 39
  • Notes 49
  • 4- The Muslim as the "Other" 53
  • Notes 61
  • III- Islamic Thought in the United States *
  • 5- Ismail R. Al-Faruqi 65
  • Notes 78
  • 6- Seyyed Hossein Nasr 80
  • Notes 92
  • 7- The Legacy of Fazlur Rahman 96
  • Notes 105
  • IV- Islamic Activity in the United States *
  • 8- Political Activity of Muslims in America 111
  • Notes 123
  • 9- Da''Wa in the West 125
  • Notes 134
  • 10- Muslims in Prison 136
  • Notes 151
  • 11- Islamic Education in the United States and Canada 157
  • Notes 173
  • V- Muslim Women in Intercultural Perspective *
  • 12- African-American Muslim Women 177
  • Notes 186
  • 13- Two-Way Acculturation 188
  • Notes 200
  • VI- American Muslims and the Question of Identity *
  • 14- Islamic Issues for Muslims in the United States 205
  • Notes 215
  • 15- American Foreign Policy in the Middle East and Its Impact on the Identity of Arab Muslims in the United States 217
  • Notes 231
  • 16- Convergence and Divergence in an Emergent Community 236
  • Notes 248
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