While researching and writing this book, I have incurred a hefty debt to many institutions and individuals. I wish to thank the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Fund for the Study of Labor Relations Studies, the Lyndon B. Johnson Library, the City University Research Foundation, and the Eisner Fund at City College for providing the financial support and time off from teaching that allowed me to travel and write.
Presidential libraries are essential mines for every aspect of postwar history, but making good use of them requires expert guidance. The archivists at the Lyndon B. Johnson and Jimmy Carter libraries were especially helpful to me. President Richard M. Nixon's papers are at the National Archives repository in College Park, Maryland. I used them when they were in Alexandria, Virginia, where the staff, working under difficult circumstances, gave me knowledgeable, essential advice.
The National Archives was a crucial repository. Its collections of the records of the Department of Labor and the Office of Management and Budget were critical for tracking general policy as well as particular employment discrimination cases. Bill Creech was an expert guide to this material. Still, much material documenting the recent past remains in individual government departments, not in the Archives. Nelson Hermilla and Richard Ugelow at the Justice Department located critical files on the steel consent decrees of 1974. Elaine Bloomfield, a lawyer at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (eeoc), sent me a statistical breakdown of the impact of the consent decrees. Historian Hugh Graham generously gave me a copy of eeoc minutes, which had disappeared from the agency files. (Thanks to both of us, eeoc now has a copy.) Unfortunately, eeoc records are unorganized and difficult to use. Thomas J. Schlageter somehow located eeoc files on the steel industry for me.
Although the relevant records of steel companies are unavailable, the minutes of the board of director's meetings of the American Iron and Steel Institute, the industry's trade association, have recently been made available at the Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, Delaware. Corporate documents and opinion turn up in congressional hearings and the records of all branches of the government, the union, and civil rights organizations. In addition, articles in the business and trade press were essential, especially those in Iron Age, American Metal Market, the Wall Street Journal,