The Quakers

By Hugh Barbour; J. William Frost | Go to book overview

13
QUAKER MIGRANTS TO CAROLINA AND THE MIDWEST; EASTERN PHILANTHROPISTS

Early Friends and Puritans lived and traveled as "pilgrims and strangers" on earth ( I Peter 2:11) while founding many new Bethels or (Jeru-)salems. Under persecution, eighteenth-century Quakers and dissenters had moved within England from farms into villages that became cities like Birmingham. In the American colonies those who became Friends in New England and the South had been recent settlers; even the Friends founding New Jersey and Pennsylvania did not all stay put. The familiar image is misleading, that eastern towns centered on stable Quaker Meetings (or New England churches) where families continued for centuries. In almost every family some stayed while others migrated; those who left often moved several times. The isolation of Kentucky's log cabins may also blind us to how often a group of couples with their children moved as a wagon train together to a new village that a few of their men had scouted, cleared, and prepared with cabins for them. 1 Another half-truth is that the frontier was settled by misfits from eastern towns and immigrants directly from Europe, who could never "go home again." In the eighteenth century this was true of most Scots, Ulstermen, German Lutherans, or sectarians but not of the Friends. Daniel Boone, a birthright Quaker, had indeed become estranged from his Bucks County Meeting and explored by himself. But most settlers merely came from large families in East Coast communities where the best land was subject to church taxes or fully bought up. Migrants wanted new farms but kept in touch with eastern cousins. Meetings or churches on the East Coast helped the new congregations and sent out traveling Quaker "ministers," Presbyterian pastors, or Methodist circuit riders. Friends encouraged the founding of new Meetings. Home Meetings gave certificates of membership to emigrants only after careful reassurance that they would not be cut off from Quaker schools and worship. Most communities began with "allowed" Meetings in private homes. Until a new Monthly Meeting (and in time a new Quarterly and Yearly Meeting) was "set off" by the parent group, migrants' certificates were deposited in the

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The Quakers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Denominations in America ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Part One the Quakers: A History of Friends in America 1
  • 1: Introduction 3
  • 2: The Religious Setting of the Early Friends 11
  • 3 - The Lamb's War and the Awakening of the North of England 35
  • 4: Quaker Worship and Ethics and Their Transformation, 1652-1662 39
  • 5 - The Mission to America 58
  • 6: England, 1660-1689 61
  • 7: The Quaker Colonies 73
  • 8: A Tolerated Society of Friends 83
  • 9: A Spiritual Existence 95
  • 10: A Disciplined Christian Life 107
  • 11: Crisis and Reformation 119
  • 12: The American Revolutions 137
  • 13: Quaker Migrants to Carolina and the Midwest; Eastern Philanthropists 153
  • 14: Separations 169
  • 15: The Midcontinent in the Midcentury, 1828-1867 185
  • 16: West and Midwest, 1867- 1902 203
  • 17: The Liberal Transformation 219
  • 18: Suburban and College Friends 231
  • 19: Creativity in Peacemaking 247
  • 20: Social Service and Social Change, 1902-1970 261
  • 21: New Forms of Quaker Interaction, 1960-1987 271
  • Part Two a Biographical Dictionary of Former Quaker Leaders in America 281
  • A 285
  • B 287
  • C 301
  • D 311
  • E 313
  • F 315
  • G 321
  • H 327
  • J 337
  • K 343
  • L 347
  • M 351
  • P 357
  • R 363
  • S 365
  • T 369
  • U 371
  • V 373
  • W 375
  • Appendix: Chronology 381
  • Bibliographic Essay 385
  • Index 393
  • About the Authors 409
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