The Quakers

By Hugh Barbour; J. William Frost | Go to book overview

16
WEST AND MIDWEST, 1867- 1902: REVIVALS, HOLINESS, MISSIONS, AND PASTORS

The transformation of evangelical Quaker worship by sermons and hymns after the Civil War makes "the great revival" of 1867-77 a subject of intense argument and research. 1 The less noticed interaction of patterns of revivalism and pastoral ministry with the experience and doctrines of holiness shaped much of western and midwestern Quakerism.


THE NATIONAL HOLINESS REVIVALS OF 1858 AND 1867

New patterns had developed out of Charles Finney's "new methods" thirty years before among non-Quakers. In New York in 1835 Sarah Lankford and her sister Phoebe Palmer, wife of a homeopathic doctor, had begun a series of noonday home prayer meetings to seek total self-dedication and holiness, supported by some clergy but led by lay persons. In 1839 they had persuaded the Reverend Timothy Merritt of Boston to edit a journal, The Guide to Christian Perfection. Phoebe Palmer's own autobiographical Way of Holiness, with Notes by the Way ( 1845), became a best-seller. Professor Thomas Upham of Bowdoin and several Methodist Bishops joined the movement. By 1858 (the year after a banking crisis) these women had become the center of an intense national "Lay Awakening" mainly in cities. Their ideas drew on those taught at Oberlin, founded in 1836 after Lane Seminary split over abolitionism. Oberlin President Asa Mahan and Theology Professor Charles G. Finney began to publish Holiness doctrines. 2

In 1867 other pastors began a series of summer "Bible conferences" like camp meetings at places such as Vineland, New Jersey; Manheim, Pennsylvania; and Round Lake, New York. These meetings were interchurch, though led by Methodists such as John S. Inskip. Their organizers took as their title The National Camp Meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness. OhioQuaker David Updegraff* led some of their sessions at Mountain Lake, New Jersey.

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The Quakers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Denominations in America ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Part One the Quakers: A History of Friends in America 1
  • 1: Introduction 3
  • 2: The Religious Setting of the Early Friends 11
  • 3 - The Lamb's War and the Awakening of the North of England 35
  • 4: Quaker Worship and Ethics and Their Transformation, 1652-1662 39
  • 5 - The Mission to America 58
  • 6: England, 1660-1689 61
  • 7: The Quaker Colonies 73
  • 8: A Tolerated Society of Friends 83
  • 9: A Spiritual Existence 95
  • 10: A Disciplined Christian Life 107
  • 11: Crisis and Reformation 119
  • 12: The American Revolutions 137
  • 13: Quaker Migrants to Carolina and the Midwest; Eastern Philanthropists 153
  • 14: Separations 169
  • 15: The Midcontinent in the Midcentury, 1828-1867 185
  • 16: West and Midwest, 1867- 1902 203
  • 17: The Liberal Transformation 219
  • 18: Suburban and College Friends 231
  • 19: Creativity in Peacemaking 247
  • 20: Social Service and Social Change, 1902-1970 261
  • 21: New Forms of Quaker Interaction, 1960-1987 271
  • Part Two a Biographical Dictionary of Former Quaker Leaders in America 281
  • A 285
  • B 287
  • C 301
  • D 311
  • E 313
  • F 315
  • G 321
  • H 327
  • J 337
  • K 343
  • L 347
  • M 351
  • P 357
  • R 363
  • S 365
  • T 369
  • U 371
  • V 373
  • W 375
  • Appendix: Chronology 381
  • Bibliographic Essay 385
  • Index 393
  • About the Authors 409
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