WEST AND MIDWEST, 1867- 1902: REVIVALS, HOLINESS, MISSIONS, AND PASTORS
The transformation of evangelical Quaker worship by sermons and hymns after the Civil War makes "the great revival" of 1867-77 a subject of intense argument and research. 1 The less noticed interaction of patterns of revivalism and pastoral ministry with the experience and doctrines of holiness shaped much of western and midwestern Quakerism.
New patterns had developed out of Charles Finney's "new methods" thirty years before among non-Quakers. In New York in 1835 Sarah Lankford and her sister Phoebe Palmer, wife of a homeopathic doctor, had begun a series of noonday home prayer meetings to seek total self-dedication and holiness, supported by some clergy but led by lay persons. In 1839 they had persuaded the Reverend Timothy Merritt of Boston to edit a journal, The Guide to Christian Perfection. Phoebe Palmer's own autobiographical Way of Holiness, with Notes by the Way ( 1845), became a best-seller. Professor Thomas Upham of Bowdoin and several Methodist Bishops joined the movement. By 1858 (the year after a banking crisis) these women had become the center of an intense national "Lay Awakening" mainly in cities. Their ideas drew on those taught at Oberlin, founded in 1836 after Lane Seminary split over abolitionism. Oberlin President Asa Mahan and Theology Professor Charles G. Finney began to publish Holiness doctrines. 2
In 1867 other pastors began a series of summer "Bible conferences" like camp meetings at places such as Vineland, New Jersey; Manheim, Pennsylvania; and Round Lake, New York. These meetings were interchurch, though led by Methodists such as John S. Inskip. Their organizers took as their title The National Camp Meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness. OhioQuaker David Updegraff* led some of their sessions at Mountain Lake, New Jersey.