Goals as the Transactive Point Between
Motivation and Cognition
Paul A. Schutz University of Akron
The relationship between cognition and motivation is an issue that is receiving increased attention in both education and psychology( Ford, 1992; Kuhl, 1986; McKeachie, 1990; McKeachie, Pintrich, & Lin, 1985; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991; Pintrich & Schrauben, 1992; Sorrentino & Higgins, 1986). This attention is the result of an interest on the part of theorists and researchers to understand the combined influences of motivation and cognition on self-directed behavior. As indicated by McKeachie et al. ( 1985), knowledge of learning strategies does not necessarily lead to better academic performance; students must also develop the motivation to use those strategies. Therefore, if we are going to understand and be able to facilitate the self-directed behavior needed to reach academic as well as other life goals, we must understand the combined influences of motivation and cognition on those processes.
As the theoretical and empirical work continues, we must remember that motivation and cognition in thought and behavior are two transactive1 dimensions of the same self-directed process. They are not separate entities. Theoretical and empirical convenience and bias has resulted in them being studied as different constructs ( Ford, 1992; Locke____________________