Barry J. Zimmerman
Graduate School of the City University of New York
Among his many interests in the field of collegiate instruction, Wilbert McKeachie has devoted special attention to increasing students' active participation in the teaching-learning process. He has investigated the effectiveness of a wide variety of instructional methods designed to enhance students' role in this process and their self-perceptions of it. His pioneering contributions have provided a solid foundation for current research on students' sense of agency over their academic achievement and their use of self-regulatory processes, which refer to metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral efforts to control their own learning ( Zimmerman, 1989, 1990).
In this chapter, we survey McKeachie's findings and insights-- particularly as they bear on the issue of academic self-regulation. We describe three recent studies that examine college students' selfregulation and perceptions of self-efficacy in their academic writing, or their confidence that they can perform this task ( Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994). Finally, McKeachie's recommendations for improving college students' self-regulatory processes and metacognitive skills are