GENETIC ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR
Irving I. Gottesman
The science of genetics has made and is continuing to make significant contributions to our knowledge about mental deficiency. Nonetheless it is possible to cite discussions of this problem area which either minimize or ignore the genetic aspects of human behavior. Breakthroughs in the field of cytological genetics ( Lejeune & Turpin, 1961), including the discovery of the basis for mongolism ( Lejeune, Turpin, & Gautier, 1959) together with advances in biochemical genetics ( Knox, 1961), such as finding a test for the heterozygous carriers of the recessive gene for phenylketonuria ( Hsia, Driscoll, Troll, & Knox, 1956; Wang, Morton, & Waisman, 1961), demand that serious students of the bases of intelligent behavior have some familiarity with the overlapping area between psychology and genetics ( Fuller & Thompson, 1960).
This chapter discusses and demonstrates the relevance of human genetics to considerations of human intelligence. After presenting the dialectics of heredity and environment, general and specific theoretical constructs and principles in genetics are illustrated. Perhaps least familiar to behavioral scientists are the sections on polygenic inheritance of quantitative variation and the one on heritability. Under the broad section dealing with the inheritance of intelligent behavior in animals, studies which have selected____________________