Handbook of Mental Deficiency: Psychological Theory and Research

By Norman R. Ellis | Go to book overview
of research data on perceptual processes in retardates is striking and the results too fragmentary to permit meaningful integration. It seems clear that much more concentrated work is needed before interpretive generalizations can be made with confidence. A hopeful sign is the increase in research interest in perceptual processes in general, reflected in the fact that a large proportion of the studies completed with retardates has been within the last decade, with a heavy concentration within the last few years.The reviewer has emphasized methodology since research with retardates requires not only knowledge of research design and statistics but awareness of a number of unique problems encountered when working with individuals with limited intellectual ability. In all likelihood, awareness of these unique problems, as well as generation of new and interesting research hypotheses, would be abetted by firsthand day-to-day experience with retardates. Heber states: "In my opinion, the failure to obtain conclusive findings in many studies can be attributed to the blind application of methodologies and techniques, which may have been highly successful in animal and other areas of experimentation, to research problems in mental retardation" ( 1961, p. 5).It is clear that only a limited number of areas in perceptual research have been studied in retardates. What should be studied to offer the maximal "yield" must be left to the ingenuity and creativity of the individual researcher. It is likely however that the most productive research will result when the researcher follows up his own leads and pursues a question through a series of studies. Too often the "single-shot" study raises more questions than are answered and is rarely followed up by others. The result, as in the present instance, is an aggregate of discrete findings that are impossible to integrate.In studying perceptual processes in retardates, the greatest challenge is the absence of clearly defined paths to follow. There being little to build upon, the field offers infinite possibilities for the careful pursuit of the new idea.
REFERENCES
BARNETT, C. D., & PRYER, MARGARET W. Note on depth perception in defectives. Percept. mot. Skills, 1958, 8, 130.
BARTLEY, S. H. Principles of perception. New York: Harper, 1958.
BELMONT, LILLIAN, & BIRCH, H. G. The relation of time of life to behavioral consequence of brain damage. I. The performance of brain-injured adults on the marble board test. J. nerv. ment. Dis., 1960, 130, 91-97.
BIRCH, H. G., & BELMONT, LILLIAN. The relation of time of life to behavioral consequences in brain damage. II. The organization of tactual form experience in brain injured adults. J. nerv. ment. Dis., 1960, 131, 489-494.
BLAU, T. H., & SCHAFFER, R. E. The spiral aftereffect test as a predictor of normal and abnormal electroencephalographic records in children. J. consult. Psychol., 1960, 24, 35-42.
BORTNER, M., & BIRCH, H. G. "Perceptual and perceptual-motor dissociation in brain-damaged patients". J. nerv. ment. Dis., 1960, 130, 49-53.

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Handbook of Mental Deficiency: Psychological Theory and Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contributors vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xi
  • Contents xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I 9
  • 1 - Field Theory in Mental Deficiency 11
  • Introduction 11
  • References 36
  • 2 - A Social Learning Approach to Mental Retardation 41
  • Summary 86
  • References 86
  • 3 - Hull - Spence Behavior Theory and Mental Deficiency 92
  • Introduction 92
  • A Summing-Up 129
  • References 129
  • 4 - The Stimulus Trace and Behavioral Inadequacy 134
  • Summary 155
  • References 155
  • 5 - The Role of Attention in Retardate Discrimination Learning 159
  • References 220
  • 6 - Intelligence and Brain Damage 224
  • References 251
  • 7 - Genetic Aspects of Intelligent Behavior 253
  • References 291
  • 8 - The Application of Piaget's Theory to Research in Mental Deficiency 297
  • Introduction 297
  • References 323
  • 9 - Social Psychologies of Mental Deficiency 325
  • Summary 348
  • References 348
  • 10 - Psychological Studies of Mental Deficiency in the Soviet Union 353
  • Part II 389
  • 11 - Learning: Verbal, Perceptual-Motor, and Classical Conditioning 391
  • References 420
  • 12 Discrimination Learning 424
  • 12 Discrimination Learning 436
  • 13 - Problem - Solving and Conceptual Behavior 439
  • Conclusions 458
  • References 458
  • 14 - Sensory Processes and Mental Deficiency 463
  • Summary 476
  • References 476
  • 15 - Perceptual Processes 480
  • Conclusions 506
  • References 507
  • 16 - Language and Communication of Mental Defectives 512
  • Introduction 512
  • Summary and Overview 550
  • References 550
  • 17 - Psychophysiological Studies in Mental Deficiency 556
  • 17 - Psychophysiological Studies in Mental Deficiency 569
  • References 571
  • 18 - Abnormal Behavior and Mental Deficiency 574
  • Introduction 574
  • Summary and Conclusions 595
  • References 595
  • 19 - Motor Skills in Mental Deficiency 602
  • Summary 626
  • References 626
  • 20 - Research in Activity Level 632
  • Summary 657
  • References 657
  • 21 - Academic Skills 664
  • Summary 687
  • References 687
  • Contributors 691
  • Name Index 699
  • Subject Index 713
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