|3:The title of Julius Braunthal work translates to The Present Economy and Its Laws.|
|4:Both Karl Marx's father and mother were descended from rabbinical families.|
|5:Left-Wing German Socialists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were murdered by royalist officers while they were under arrest during the Spartacist uprising of 1919. See Eric Waldman, The Spartacist Uprising of 1919: A Study of the Relation of Political Theory and Party Process ( Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1958), 194-95; and Erich Eyck, A History of the Weimar Republic ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962), 51-53. For an authoritative discussion of the murders, see Julius Braunthal, History of the International, Volume II, 1914-1943 ( New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1967), 132, footnote 1.|
|6: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770-1851) was a German philosopher
whose dialectical progression from thesis to antithesis to synthesis was crucial to
the development of Marx's theories.|
Young Hegelians composed a group of fledgling philosophers of the early and mid-nineteenth century who were greatly influenced by Hegel.
Bruno Bauer ( 1809-1882), a Young Hegelian, was a Biblical historian. David Friedrich Strauss ( 1808-1874) was a German theological scholar who was influenced by the Hegelians.
"Religion is the opiate of the masses" was a view commonly held by many liberal and radical thinkers of the mid- and late-nineteenth century. It may have originated with Christian Socialist Charles Kingsley. The statement postulated that religion made it possible for working people to endure the pain that, its proponents argued, capitalism had inflicted upon them.
Don Quixote de la Mancha is the hero of the satirical novel of that name by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( 1547-1616). Don Quixote encountered windmills on the plains of Monteil, assumed them to be giants, and "battled" them with his lance. A "quixotic" figure has since come to mean a battler against imagined but non existent foes.
Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach ( 1804-1872) was a major Hegelian philosopher. He opposed religious orthodoxy and the concept of immortality.
|7: Pierre Joseph Proudhon ( 1809-1865) was a French Anarchist thinker. Dialectical materialism is the Marxian revision of the Hegelian dialectic. It accepted the assumption that each force or idea (thesis) has an antagonistic and contradictory force or idea (antithesis) with which it clashes. The outcome of each such clash is a totally new force or idea (synthesis). Marx argued that capitalism is the thesis; the proletariat, the antithesis; and socialism, the synthesis. ( Marx, incidentally, never used the term dialectical materialism.)|
|9: The Communist Manifesto was the declaration of principles of the Communist League. It is both a primer in Marxism and a strident call for revolution. Written jointly by Marx and Friedrich Engels, 1820-1895, it appeared in 1848.|
|10: Marx's magnum opus, Capital [Das Kapital], is a three-volume critique of capitalism.|